BER Performance of Walsh–Hadamard Like Kronecker Product Codes in a DS-CDMA and Cognitive Underlay System
- First Online:
- 244 Downloads
Walsh–Hadamard transform, a discrete unitary transform is widely used in many applications such as signature codes in the current wireless standards IS-95 CDMA, WCDMA, CDMA2000 and image transform applications. It is simple to implement this transform since they can be generated by a single Kronecker product recursion formula. In this paper, a new set of binary code families similar to Walsh codes are obtained based on the concept of code concatenation and permutation. It is shown that these codes can be generated by reconfiguring the Walsh–Hadamard code generator. Hence it can be utilized in reconfigurable radios such as underlay cognitive radio (UCR). Theoretical results showing the BER performance due to MAI between primary users and secondary users in an UCR is also obtained. Simulation results showing the BER performance of these codes in a direct sequence spread spectrum system and UCR system with quadrature multiplexing operating in the individual decoding mode under AWGN plus flat fading Rayleigh channel conditions is also obtained.
KeywordsAdditive white Gaussian noise Under lay cognitive radio Quadrature multiplexing Primary user Secondary user Walsh–Hadamard sequences
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Devroye, N., Vu, M., & Tarokh, V. (2008). Cognitive radio networks. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 12–23.Google Scholar
- 2.Budiarjo, I., Nikokar, H., & Ligthart, L. P. (2008). Cognitive radio modulation techniques. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 24–34.Google Scholar
- 3.Yi, N., Ma, Y. & Tafazolli, R. (2010). Underlay cognitive radio with full or partial channel quality information. International Journal of Navigation and Observation. Article ID 105723. doi:10.1155/2010/105723.
- 4.Scutari, G., Palomar, D. P., & Barbarossa, S. (2008). Cognitive MIMO radio. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 46–59.Google Scholar
- 5.Yue, G. (2008). Antijamming coding techniques. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 35–45.Google Scholar
- 6.Proakis, J. G. Digital communications (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill International.Google Scholar
- 9.Chen, H.-H. The next generation CDMA technologies. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
- 11.Moon, T. K., & Stirling, W. C. Mathematical methods and algorithms for signal processing. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- 12.Moon, T. K., & Stirling, W. C. Error correcting codes: Mathematical methods and algorithms. London: WileyGoogle Scholar
- 13.Elsner, J. P., Rykaczewski, P., Korner, C., & Jondral, F. K. (2007). Orthogonal complex Hadamard spreading codes for I/Q imbalance mitigation in MC-CDMA systems. VTC, 2661–2665.Google Scholar
- 14.Seberry, J., Wysocki, B. J., & Wysocki, T. A. (2003). Williamson–Hadamard spreading sequences for DS-CDMA applications. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 597–607.Google Scholar
- 15.Suchitra, G., & Valarmathi, M. L. (2011). BER performance of modified Walsh Hadamard Codes in a DS-CDMA and cognitive underlay system. European Journal of Scientific Research, 563–578.Google Scholar
- 16.Parker, M. G., Paterson, K. G., & Tellambura, C. (2004). Golay complementary sequences.Google Scholar
- 17.Alaus, L., Palicot, J., Roland, C., Louet, Y., & Noguet, D. (2011). Promising technique of parameterization for reconfigurable radio, the common operators technique: Fundamentals and examples. Journal of Signal Processing System.Google Scholar
- 18.Shi, Q., Guan, Y. L., & Law, C. L. (2007). Channel-matched spreading codes for the downlink of MC-CDMA. In ICC 2007 proceedings.Google Scholar
- 19.Haykins S. (1998) Digital communications. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 21.Jalil, A. M., Meghdadi, V., & Cances, J.-P. (2009). A new criterion for determining the efficiency of CDMA codes. In 17th European signal processing conference (EUSIPCO) (pp. 1632–1635).Google Scholar
- 22.Zhao, Y., Seberry, J., Wysocki, B. J., & Wysocki, T. A. (2006). Complex orthogonal spreading sequences using mutually orthogonal complementary sets. Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, 622–625.Google Scholar