This paper presents a new approach for efficient image transmission over Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems using chaotic interleaving. The chaotic interleaving scheme based on Baker map is applied on the image data prior to transmission. The proposed approach transmits images over wireless channels, efficiently, without posing significant constraints on the wireless communication system bandwidth and noise. The performance of the proposed approach is further improved by applying Frequency-Domain Equalization (FDE) at the receiver. Two types of frequency-domain equalizers are considered and compared for performance evaluation of the proposed MC-CDMA system; the Zero-Forcing equalizer and the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) equalizer. Several experiments are carried out to test the performance of the image transmission with different sizes over the proposed MC-CDMA system. Simulation results show that image transmission over wireless channels using the proposed chaotic interleaving approach is much more immune to noise and fading. Moreover this chaotic interleaving process adds a degree of encryption to the transmitted data. The results also show a noticeable performance improvement in terms of the Root Mean Square Error and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio values when applying FDE in the proposed approach, especially with the LMMSE equalizer.
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El-Bakary, E.M., Hassan, E.S., Zahran, O. et al. Efficient Image Transmission with Multi-Carrier CDMA. Wireless Pers Commun 69, 979–994 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-012-0622-6
- Chaotic interleaving