Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The Tradeoff Between Bit Error Rate and Optical Link Distance Using Laser Phase Noise Fixing Process in Coherent Optical OFDM Systems

Abstract

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a suitable solution thanks to its many advantages known in wireless communications. On the other hand, optical communications is also used as a backbone to transmit and receive large data rates with economical and good performance. Recently, fiber optical communication and OFDM method have been combined to obtain both advantages in a communication link called Coherent Optical OFDM (CO-OFDM). In this study, Bit error rate (BER) versus distance variations are investigated for a constant signal to noise ratio in CO-OFDM systems. Results also show the performance of the CO-OFDM system at different data rates and distances for one RF carrier and one optical carrier. So far, the Telecommunication Standardization Sector standards have suggested 81 channels between 192.1 and 196.1 THz in C band. Extending the number of channels using 111 more channels between 185.9 and 191.4 THz in L band where optical amplifiers and laser sources are available, the total number of channels reaches up to 192. In this research, CO-OFDM technique is modeled and simulated designing a Monte Carlo simulation. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is the key factor to obtain 3 Tb/s (192*16 Gb/s) utilizing only one optical cable by covering whole C and L bands. To the best of our knowledge, this work shows the first BER versus Distance variations in a CO-OFDM communication link for 3 Tb/s.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

arg :

Symbol phase angle

BER:

Bit Error Rate

BPSK:

Binary Phase Shift Keying

c:

Light velocity in vacuum

CO-OFDM:

Coherent Optical OFDM

D t :

Chromatic Dispersion Parameter

FFT:

Fast Fourier Transform

f LD :

Laser frequency

f n :

nth subcarrier of OFDM symbol

f S :

Sampling frequency

GI:

Guard interval

GVD:

Group velocity dispersion

IDFT:

Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

IFFT:

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

h n :

Transfer function of nth component owing to the GVD

ICI:

Inter carrier Interference

ISI:

Inter-symbol Interference

L:

Link distance

Lmax :

Maximum Link Distance

MCM:

Multi carrier modulation

MZM:

Mach Zehnder Modulator

n :

Refractive index

n mn :

The noise component of nth subcarrier of mth symbol

NSC :

The number of OFDM subcarrier

NSD :

The number of OFDM data subcarrier

NSP :

The number of OFDM pilot subcarrier

OFDM:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OOK:

On-Off Keying

RF:

Radio Frequency

RoF:

Radio over Fiber

RTO:

RF to Optical Modulation

SNR:

Signal to Noise Ratio

SSMF:

Standart Single Mode Fiber

T CP :

Cycle Prefix duration

T S :

Sampling period

T SYM :

OFDM symbol duration

T U :

Useful symbol duration

v :

Light velocity in fiber optical cable

\({c_{mn}^-}\) :

Estimated nth subcarrier of mth symbol at receiver output

c mn :

nth subcarrier of mth symbol at transmitter output

\({c_{mn}^\prime}\) :

nth subcarrier of mth symbol at receiver input

\({c_{\it mn}^{\it fs}}\) :

nth subcarrier of mth symbol after laser phase noise compensation at receiver

\({\bar{{\varphi }}_m }\) :

Estimated total phase drift for mth OFDM symbol

\({\varphi _m}\) :

Phase drift for mth OFDM symbol

\({\varphi_n }\) :

nth subcarrier phase component of OFDM symbol

\({\varphi_{\it LD}}\) :

Phase drift of the Laser diode

\({\varphi_{D}\left( n \right)}\) :

Phase dispersion of nth subcarrier because of Chromatic dispersion

Δf :

Subcarrier spacing

ΔG :

Guard interval length

References

  1. 1

    Djordjevic I. B., Vasic B. (2006) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission. Optical Society of America, Optics Express 14: 3767–3775

  2. 2

    Shieh W., Athaudage C. (2006) Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. IEE Electronics Letters 42: 5–589

  3. 3

    Xingwen Y., Shieh W., Tang Y. (2007) Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 13: 919–921

  4. 4

    Jansen, S. L., Morita, I., Takeda, N., & Tanaka H. (2007). 20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160 km SSMF enabled by RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation. In Optical fiber communication conference OFC07.

  5. 5

    Lowery, A. J., Liang, D., & Armstrong, J. (2006). Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems. In Optical fiber communication conference OFC06.

  6. 6

    Tang J. M., Shore K. A. (2007) 30 Gbps signal transmission over 40 km directly modulated DFB laser based single mode fiber links without optical amplification and dispersion compensation. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 24: 2318–2327

  7. 7

    Fludger C. R. S., Duthel T., van den Borne D., Schulien C., Schmidt E. D., Wuth T. et al (2008) Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission. Journal of Lightwave Technology 26: 64–72

  8. 8

    Xiang, L., Qi, Y., Chandrasekhar, S., & Shieh, W. (2010). Transmission of 44-Gb/s coherent optical OFDM signal with Trellis-coded 32-QAM subcarrier modulation. In 15th Opto electronics and communications conference (OECC).

  9. 9

    Yazgan, A. (2011). The Tradeoff between BER and link distance for a constant signal to noise ratio in coherent optical OFDM systems 34. In International conference on telecommunications and signal processing (TSP 2011), pp. 126–130, Budapest, Hungary, 18–20 August 2011.

  10. 10

    Yazgan, A., & Cavdar, I. H., (2011). Examination of the effect of fixing laser phase noise in coherent optical OFDM systems with different channel parameters 34. In International conference on telecommunications and signal processing (TSP 2011), pp. 121–125. Budapest, Hungary, 18–20 August 2011.

  11. 11

    Laude J. P. (2002) DWDM fundamentals, components and applications. Artech House, London

  12. 12

    Ye L. G., Gordon L. S. (2006) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for wireless communications. Springer, Atlanta

  13. 13

    Soysal, B. (2004). High performance receiver design for OFDM based wireless communication systems. PhD Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University Department of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Trabzon.

  14. 14

    Broadband radio access HIPERLAN Type 2; Physical Layer Sophia antipolice Cedex, 1999.

  15. 15

    Rajiv R., Kumar N. S. (2002) Optical networks a practical perspective Morgan Kaufmann publishers. Academic Press, United State of America

  16. 16

    Franz, J. H., & Jain, V. K. (2000). Optical communications components and systems: Alpha Science International Ltd, India.

  17. 17

    Matthew N., Sadıku O. (2002) Optical and wireless communications next generation networks. CRC Press, United State of America

  18. 18

    Alwayn V. (2004) Optical network design and implementation. Cisco Press, United State of America

  19. 19

    McClellan J. H., Schafer R. W., Yoder M. A. (2003) Signal processing first. Prentice Hall, United State of America

  20. 20

    Senior J. M. (1985) Optical fiber communications principles and practice. Prentice Hall, London

  21. 21

    Shieh W., Bao H., Tang Y. (2008) Coherent optical OFDM theory and design. Optics Express 16: 841–859

  22. 22

    Lowery A. J. (2007) Fiber nonlinearity pre and post compensation for long optical links using OFDM. Optics Express 15: 12965–12970

  23. 23

    Shieh W. (2007) PMD supported coherent optical OFDM systems. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 19: 134–136

  24. 24

    Bülow H., Buchali F., Klekamp A. (2008) Electronic dispersion compensation. Journal of Lightwave Technology 26: 158–167

  25. 25

    Tang J. M., Lane P. M., Shore K. A. (2006) Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links. IEEE Photonic Technology Letters 18: 205–207

  26. 26

    Lowery A. J., Armstrong J. (2006) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long haul optical systems. Optics Express 14: 2079–2084

  27. 27

    Yazgan, A. (2008). OFDM based chromatic dispersion compensation in fiber optic media, MSc Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University Department of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Trabzon.

  28. 28

    Visani D., Tartarini G., Tarlazzi L., Faccin P. (2011) Transmission of UMTS and WIMAX signals over cost-effective radio over fiber systems. Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 19: 831–833

  29. 29

    Grover W. D. (1988) Forward error correction in dispersion—limited lightwave systems. Journal of Lightwave Technology 6: 643

  30. 30

    Mizuochi T. (2006) Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 12: 544–554

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Ayhan Yazgan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yazgan, A., Cavdar, I.H. The Tradeoff Between Bit Error Rate and Optical Link Distance Using Laser Phase Noise Fixing Process in Coherent Optical OFDM Systems. Wireless Pers Commun 68, 907–919 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-011-0489-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Coherent communications
  • Fiber optical communication
  • OFDM modulation
  • Optical link design
  • RoF
  • Laser phase noise