Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 253–271 | Cite as

Interoperability Test Methodology for ISO 18000-7 Active RFID

  • Ajay OgiralaEmail author
  • Peter J. Hawrylak
  • Marlin H. Mickle


Standards are developed by highly reputed organizations with a genuine intention that the document acts as a reference requirement and specification record for all manufacturers, and in this process the consumer is presented with a list of conforming products that are all interoperable. Active RFID tags and readers are designed with commercial intent by different manufacturers according to the ISO 18000-7 standard. Through intensive research and tests, it has come to our attention that it is possible to design two active RFID systems that in their entirety conform to the ISO 18000-7 standard and yet be not interoperable with each other. From this statement it can be inferred that conformance is not the sufficient condition for interoperability as is popularly believed, but only the necessary or minimum condition to satisfy interoperability. Therefore apart from preliminary conformance testing, it becomes absolutely essential to include additional and supplemental interoperability tests into the verification process of the production cycle. This research primarily establishes the requirement for interoperability testing giving instances where the standard fails to insure interoperable products. The traditional method to test interoperability currently in practice are investigated and their limitations are exposed. Further this research paper introduces an innovative and ingenious methodology to test active RFID systems for interoperability at the physical layer.


ISO 18000-7 Active RFID Interoperability Sampling plans Analysis of variance Physical layer Command-reply protocol 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    DoD Interoperability Guidelines for the Over Air Interface, Version 1.0, 15th Feb 08.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    PM J-AIT Over Air Interface Guidelines (Errata), Version 1.0, 15th Feb 08.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO 18000-7.2 (2008). Information technology—radio frequency identification for item management—part 7: Parameters for active air interface communications at 433 MHz.
  4. 4.
    Ogirala, A. (2009). Development of automated test analysis, methodology and procedure for interoperability measure in ISO 18000-7 active RFID. Ph.D Dissertation, Submitted to the faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Archana, M. (2008). Interoperability as a standard’s ingredient for active RFID systems. Masters Thesis, Submitted to the faculty of CEMS, University of West of England.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhuta, J., & Boehm, B. (2007). Center for systems and software engineering, University of Southern California, Attribute-Based COTS Product Interoperability Assessment. In Sixth international IEEE conference on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS)-based software systems (ICCBSS’07), IEEE.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Song, E. Y., & Lee, K. B. (2010). Interoperability test of IEEE 1451.5 standard-based wireless. In 2010 international conference on Measuring technology and mechatronics automation (ICMTMA) (Vol. 2, pp. 510–515). 13–14 March 2010.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wijaya, H. (2004). Interoperability concept for wireless LANs. in Vehicular technology conference, 2004. VTC2004-Fall. 2004 IEEE 60th (Vol. 2, pp. 919–923). 26–29 Sept. 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fratu, O., Popovici, E. C., Halunga, S. V., & Stanescu, E. (2009). Consideration on interoperability of different wireless access networks using the IEEE 802.21 approach. In 9th international conference on Telecommunication in modern satellite, cable, and broadcasting services, 2009. (TELSIKS ’09) (pp. 107–116). 7–9 Oct. 2009.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahjabeen, D., Sayem, A. H. M., Ahmed, A., & Rafique, S. (2010). Interoperability of wireless networks based on layer modification and LTE with 4G. In 2010 6th international conference on wireless communications networking and mobile computing (WiCOM) (pp. 1–4). 23–25 Sept. 2010.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chandrasekaran, R., & Chandler, E. W. (2004). Interoperability and capacities of coexisting W-CDMA and CDMA2000 3rd-generation wireless cellular systems. In Electro/information technology conference, 2004. EIT 2004. IEEE (pp. 286–292). 26–27 Aug. 2004.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mickle, M. H., Ogirala, A., Hawrylak, P. J., & Sun, Y. (2009). An interoperability test instrument for RFID. US Patent Application, July 2009.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Montgomery D. C. (2001) Design and analysis of experiments (5th ed.). Wiley, New yorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ogirala, A., Murari, A., Hawrylak, P. J., & Mickle, M. H. (2009). The GOLD reference system for active RFID. Submitted to Journal of the Franklin Institute, August 2009.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xie, H. & Lee, Y. C. (1994). Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado. Analysis of Variance Using Fuzzy Logic Models. IEEE.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mood A., Graybill F. A., Boes D. C. (1974) Introduction to the theory of statistics (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 246–249zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    NIST/SEMATECH Handbook of Statistical Methods, Electronic Copy, Accessed on 7th Feb ’09, Available online at:
  18. 18.
    Schilling E. G. (1982) Acceptance sampling in quality control. Marcel Dekker Inc, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Squegila, N. L. (1994). Zero acceptance number sampling plans (4th ed.). Milwaukee: ASQC Quality Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mendenhall W., Sincich T. (1992) Statistics for engineers and sciences, 3rd ed. Section 4.5—the binomial probability distribution. Macmillan Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sampling Plans by H & H Servicco Corp. “TPZero User manual”, Accessed on 9th July 2009. Available online at:
  22. 22.
    ISO 18000-2 (2009). Information technology—radio frequency identification for item management—part 2: Parameters for active air interface communications below 135 kHz.
  23. 23.
    EPCgolbal (2005). EPCTM radio-frequency identity protocols. In Class 1 generation 2 UHF RFID protocol for communication at 860 MHz to 960 MHz, version 1.0.9.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    ISO 18000-3 (2008). Information technology—radio frequency identification for item management—part 3: Parameters for active air interface communications at 13.56 MHz.
  25. 25.
    ISO 18000-4 (2008). Information technology—radio frequency identification for item management—part 4: Parameters for active air interface communications at 2.45 GHz.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajay Ogirala
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter J. Hawrylak
    • 2
  • Marlin H. Mickle
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of TulsaTulsaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RFID Centre of ExcellenceUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations