Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

BER Analysis of OFDM Systems Impaired by Phase Noise in Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

  • 152 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

In this paper, we study the effect of finite-power, phase-locked loop based phase noise on the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in frequency-selective fading channels. It is well known the impact of phase noise on the performance of an OFDM system can be divided into a multiplicative term called common phase error (CPE) and an additive term called intercarrier interference (ICI). Based on the conditional Gaussian approximation technique, we first derive the BER formulas for BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM modulated OFDM signals in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels. To further quantify the individual influence of the CPE and the ICI on system performance for different phase noise spectra, we derive the BER expressions for perfect CPE compensation cases. The analytical results obtained for frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels are then generalized to frequency-selective Rician fading channels. Simulation results not only validate the accuracy of our analysis but also show the dependency of BERs on the shapes of phase noise spectra.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    Bahai A. R. S., Saltzberg B. R., Ergen M. (2004) Multi-carrier digital communications: Theory and applications of OFDM (2nd ed.). Springer, New York

  2. 2

    Nee R., Prasad R. (2000) OFDM for wireless multimedia communications. Artech House, Norwell, MA

  3. 3

    Smulders P. (2002) Exploiting the 60 GHz band for local wireless multimedia access: Prospects and future directions. IEEE Communications Magazine 40: 140–147

  4. 4

    Demir A., Mehrotra A., Roychowdhury R. (2000) Phase noise in oscillators: A unifying theory and numerical methods for characterization. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications 47: 655–674

  5. 5

    Mehrotra A. (2002) Noise analysis of phase-locked loops. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications 49: 1309–1316

  6. 6

    Armada A.G. (2001) Understanding the effects of phasse noise in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting 47: 153–159

  7. 7

    Robertson, P., & Kaiser, S. (1995). Analysis of the effects of phase noise in OFDM systems. In Proceedings of IEEE ICC (pp. 1652–1657).

  8. 8

    Stott, J. H. (1998). The effects of phase noise in COFDM. EBU Technical Review, 1–22.

  9. 9

    Pollet T., Van Bladel M., Moeneclaey M. (1995) BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise. IEEE Transactions on Communications 43: 191–193

  10. 10

    Muscchallik C. (1995) Influence of RF oscillators on an OFDM signal. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 41: 591–603

  11. 11

    Wu S., Bar-Ness Y. (2004) OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions. IEEE Transactions on Communications 52: 1988–1996

  12. 12

    Nikookar, H., & Prasad, R. (1996). On the sensitivity of multicarrier transmission over multipath channels to phase noise and frequency offset. In Proceedings of 7th IEEE PIMRC (pp. 68–72).

  13. 13

    Tomba L. (1998) On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 46: 580–583

  14. 14

    Howald, R., Kesler, S., & Kam, M. (1998). BER performance of M-QAM using OFDM with RF carrier phase noise. In Proceedings of Southeastern Symposium on System Theory (pp. 419–423).

  15. 15

    El-Tanany M., Wu Y., Hazy L. (2001) Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting 47: 20–31

  16. 16

    Narasimhan R. (2002) Performance of diversity schemes for OFDM systems with frequency offset, phase noise, and channel estimation errors. IEEE Transactions on Communications 50: 1561–1565

  17. 17

    Piazzo L., Mandarini P. (2002) Analysis of phase noise effects in OFDM modems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 50: 1696–1705

  18. 18

    Schenk T. C. W., van der Hofstad R. W., Fledderus E. R., Smulders P. F. M. (2007) Distribution of the ICI terms in phase noise impaired OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 6: 1488–1500

  19. 19

    Costa E., Pupolin S. (2002) M-QAM OFDM system performance in the presence of a nonlinear amplifier and phase noise. IEEE Transactions on Communications 50: 462–472

  20. 20

    Wu S., Bar-Ness Y. (2002) A phase noise suppression algorithm for OFDM-based WLANs. IEEE Communications Letters 6: 535–537

  21. 21

    Jianhua Z., Rohling H., Ping Z. (2004) Analysis of ICI cancellation scheme in OFDM systems with phase noise. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting 50: 97–105

  22. 22

    Shentu J., Panta K., Armstrong J. (2003) Effects of phase noise on performance of OFDM systems using an ICI cancellation scheme. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting 49: 221–224

  23. 23

    Petrovic D., Rave W., Fettweis G. (2007) Effects of phase noise on OFDM systems with and without PLL: Characterization and compensation. IEEE Transactions on Communications 55: 1607–1616

  24. 24

    Liu, P., & Bar-Ness, Y. (2006). Closed-form expressions for BER performance in OFDM systems with phase noise. In Proceedings of IEEE ICC (pp. 5366–5370).

  25. 25

    Rugini L., Banelli P. (2005) BER of OFDM systems impaired by carrier frequency offset in multipath fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 4: 2279–2288

  26. 26

    Papoulis A., Pillai S. (2004) Probability, random variables, and stochastic processes (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York

  27. 27

    Proakis J. G. (2001) Digital communications (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York

  28. 28

    Abramowitz M., Stegun I. A. (1970) Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables (9th ed.). Dover, New York

  29. 29

    Tang X., Alouini M.-S., Goldsmith A. J. (1999) Effect of channel estimation error on M-QAM BER performance in Rayleigh fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 47: 1856–1864

  30. 30

    Simon M. K., Alouini M.-S. (2004) Digital communication over fading channels (2nd ed.). Wiley, New Jersey

  31. 31

    Zou Q., Tarighat A., Sayed A. H. (2007) Compensation of phase noise in OFDM wireless systems. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 55: 5407–5424

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Chi-Hsiao Yih.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yih, C. BER Analysis of OFDM Systems Impaired by Phase Noise in Frequency-Selective Fading Channels. Wireless Pers Commun 59, 667–687 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-010-9931-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Phase noise
  • Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
  • Frequency-selective fading channel
  • Performance analysis
  • Bit error rate