Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 369–389 | Cite as

Adaptive Beam-Centric Admission Control for WCDMA Multicell/Multiservice Scenarios with Non-Uniform Traffic

  • P. K. Gkonis
  • T. E. Athanaileas
  • G. V. Tsoulos
  • G. E. Athanasiadou
  • D. I. Kaklamani


The goal of the study presented in this paper is the accurate performance evaluation of adaptive beam-centric admission control (AC) for wideband code-division multiple access (WCDMA) multicell networks with non-uniform traffic requirements. Each NodeB employs antenna arrays (AAs), used either to form fixed grids of beams (FGoBs), or to steer and shape multiple beams towards directions of increased traffic, in an adaptive manner. The adaptive beam-centric AC maximizes the cell throughput in a multirate/multicell environment by grouping as many users as possible under a common beam formed by the AA, taking into account their spatial distribution and overall interference. Due to the increased complexity of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, a novel grid-enabled problem solving environment has been developed in order to reduce execution times considerably and make feasible full scale extensive simulations of complex operational scenarios (up to 4 tiers of cells, multiple beams per cell, non-uniform traffic distributions with different spatial characteristics). Results show that the network with the adaptive beam-centric AC can achieve significantly higher throughput per beam in multirate/multicell environments with hotspots. In particular, it is shown that the throughput per beam gain depends exponentially on the number of hotspots per cell and their angular width, and gains up to 200/350/700% can be achieved with 1/2/3 hotspots, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the adaptive beam-centric AC provides significant reduction in interbeam handovers, which leads to more available resources in downlink, reduced signaling requirements and easier network planning.


WCDMA Antenna arrays Adaptive beams Performance analysis Non-uniform traffic 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Pedersen K. I., Mogensen P. E. (2002) Directional power based admission control for WCDMA systems using beamforming antenna array systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 51(6): 1294–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adelantado F., Romero J.P., Sallent O. (2007) Nonuniform traffic distribution model in reverse link of multirate/multiservice WCDMA-based systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 56(5): 2902–2914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nguyen T. V., Dassanayake P., Faulkner M. (2004) Use of adaptive sectorisation for capacity enhancement in CDMA cellular systems with non-uniform traffic. Wireless personal communications 28(2): 107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang, J., Liu, J., Zhang, Q., Zhu, W., Li, B. & Zhang, Y. Q. (2003). An efficient algorithm for adaptive cell sectoring in CDMA systems. Proceedings of International Conference on Communications (ICC), 1238–1242.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Athanaileas T. E., Gkonis P. K., Athanasiadou G. E., Tsoulos G. V., Kaklamani D. I. (2008) Implementation and evaluation of a web-based grid-enabled environment for WCDMA multibeam system simulations. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 50(3): 195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Enabling Grids for E-Science (EGEE) Project–home page: http://public.eu-egee.org/.
  7. 7.
    The South-Eastern Europe Virtual Organization (SEE-VO), http://www.egee-see.org/see-vo.n.
  8. 8.
    Gkonis, P., Tsoulos, G., & Kaklamani, D. (2007). An adaptive admission control strategy for WCDMA multicellular networks with non-uniform traffic. Proceedings of the IEEE 66thVehicular Technical Conference (VTC), 989–993.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gkonis P. K., Tsoulos G. V., Kaklamani D. I. (2008) An adaptive beam-shaping strategy for WCDMA multicellular networks with non-uniform traffic requirements. Journal of Communications (JCM) 3(4): 16–25Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    3GPP TR 25.996 v6.1.0. (2003). Spatial channel model for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) simulations.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldsmith A. (2005) Wireless communications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foster I., Kesselman C., Tuecke C. (2001) The anatomy of the grid: Enabling scalable virtual organizations. International Journal of Supercomputer Applications 15(3): 200–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    The gLite middleware, http://glite.web.cern.ch/glite/.
  14. 14.
    Novotny J., Russell M., Wehrens O. (2004) Gridsphere: A portal framework for building collaborations. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 16(5): 503–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Godara L. C. (1997) Application of antenna arrays to mobile communications, part II: beam-forming and direction-of-arrival considerations. Proceedings of IEEE 85(8): 1195–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moreno J., Pedersen K. I., Mogensen P. E. (2004) Capacity gain of beamforming techniques in a WCDMA system under channelization code constraints. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 3(4): 1199–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sipila, K., Honkasalo, Z., Steffens, J. L., & Wacker, A. (1998). Estimation of capacity and required transmission power of WCDMA downlink based on a downlink pole equation. Proceedings of the 51stVehicular Technical Conference (VTC), 1002–1005.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chevallier, C., Brunner, C., Garavaglia, A., Murray, K., Baker, K. (eds) (2006) WCDMA(UMTS) Deployment handbook, planning and optimization aspects. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Gkonis
    • 1
  • T. E. Athanaileas
    • 1
  • G. V. Tsoulos
    • 2
  • G. E. Athanasiadou
    • 2
  • D. I. Kaklamani
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Telecommunications Science & Technology, Wireless & Mobile Communications LabUniversity of PeloponneseTripolisGreece

Personalised recommendations