Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 305–323 | Cite as

Planning and Deployment of WiMAX Networks

  • Pedro Sebastião
  • Fernando José VelezEmail author
  • Rui Costa
  • Daniel Robalo
  • António Rodrigues


Incorporation of measurement based techniques in Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) are required to improve IEEE 802.16 engineering methodologies. Wireless planning methodologies are presented, supported by a planning tool which facilitates the design and implementation of WiMAX networks. Propagation models available for WiMAX still need to be tuned and further validated. By comparing IEEE 802.16-2004 measurement results at 3.5 GHz with computed values using the modified Friis and the Stanford University Interim (SUI) models, for a suburban area, we found that the use of the modified Friis equation with a propagation exponent ~3 is more appropriate than the use of the SUI model, although, for coverage distances between 275 and 475 m, the SUI-B and mainly SUI-C models may still be used. From the analysis of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio, it is clear that both noise and interference present a strong limitation to the cellular reuse performance of fixed WiMAX mainly for higher order modulation and coding schemes. With a reuse pattern K = 7, cell throughputs near the maximum are only achieved in the uplink if sub-channelisation is used together with sectorization. The planning tool provides planners with practical and useful information through quick coverage/capacity based procedures, and outputs the number and position of the base stations and an estimation of the total cost of implementation, based on data provided by different equipment manufacturers. WiMAX cellular planning exercises are presented for the zone of Covilhã, Portugal, where Geographic Information Systems are used for representation of rural and sparse urban areas. One of the main conclusions is the strong need to use sector antennas in order to guarantee an adequate coverage, and higher system capacity whilst mitigating interference for several terrain types and environments, including hilly terrain.


Network communications Mobile communication systems Public networks Wireless communication 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Sebastião
    • 1
  • Fernando José Velez
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Rui Costa
    • 2
  • Daniel Robalo
    • 2
  • António Rodrigues
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto de Telecomunicações/Lisbon University Institute-ISCTE/Instituto Superior TécnicoLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto de Telecomunicações-Department of Electromechanical EngineeringUniversidade da Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal
  3. 3.Centre for Telecommunications ResearchKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Instituto de Telecomunicações/Instituto Superior TécnicoLisboaPortugal

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