Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 497–521

Very Low Energy Consumption Wireless Sensor Localization for Danger Environments with Single Mobile Anchor Node



In wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is very important for sensor nodes to locate with low energy consumption and high accuracy, especially in a dangerous environment. This paper describes a range-free layered localization scheme using one mobile anchor node which can transmit gradient signals, and whose moving track is a straight-line along the x-axis. And this paper proposes a sleep/wake mechanism called sensor sleep-time forecasting to save energy consumption during localization. The relationship, between the key factors in localization algorithm and the average location error, is analyzed in detail. Simulation results show that the scheme performs better than other range-free mechanisms—the average location error is less than 0.7 m, and it is independent on sensor nodes density or sensor nodes radio range, the accuracy of the algorithm can be adjusted in different occasions, and the algorithm beacon overhand is small and average localization time is short.


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) Range-free Sleep/wake Layered localization Single mobile anchor node 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Akyildiz I.F., Su W., Sankarasubramaniam Y., Cayirci E. (2002) A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Communications Magazine 40: 102–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Royer E.M., Toh C.-K. (1999). A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. IEEE Personal Communications, 6, pp. 46–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ssu, K.-F., Ou, C.-H. ,& Jiau, H. C. (2005). Location with mobile anchor points in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, 54(3).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hightower J., Borriello G. (2001) Location systems for ubiquitous computing. IEEE Computer 34: 57–66Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Navas, J. C., & Imielinski, T. (1997). GeoCast—Geographic addressing and routing. In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. (MOBICOM), Budapest, Hungary, Sept. 1997, pp. 66–76.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Basagni, S., Chlamtac, I., Syrotiuk, V. R., & Woodward, B. A. (1998). A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM). In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. (MOBICOM), Dallas, TX, Feb. 1998, pp. 76–84.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karp, B., & Kung, H. T. (2000). GPSR: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In Proceeding of the ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. (MOBICOM), Boston, MA, Aug. 2000, pp. 243–254.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ko, Y., & Vaidya, N. H. (1998). Location aided routing in mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. (MOBICOM), Dallas, TX, Feb. 1998, pp. 66–75.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bulusu N., Heidemann J., Estrin D. (2000) GPS-less low cost outdoor localization for very small devices. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Newblock 7(5): 28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    He, T., Huang, C., Blum, B. M., Stankovic, J. A., & Abdelzaher, T. (2003). Range-free localization schemes for large scale sensor networks. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom 2003), San Diego, California, September 2003, pp. 81–95.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hightower, J., Boriello, G., & Want, R. (2000). SpotON: An indoor 3D location sensing technology based on RF signal strength. In University of Washington CSE Report 2000-02-02, February 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, C., & Wu, K. (2005). Performance evaluation of range-free localization methods for wireless sensor networks. To appear in Proceedings of 24th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communication Conference (IPCCC 05), Phoenix, Arizona, April 2005.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Savvides, A., Park, H., & Srivastava, M. (2002). The bits and flops of the N-hop multilateration primitive for node localization problems. In Proceedings of the ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications. (WSNA), Atlanta, GA, Sep. 2002, pp. 112–121.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu, K., Liu, C., & King, V. (2005). A very low cost sensor localization for hostile environments. 2005 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE Cat. No. 05CH37648), 5(pt. 5), 3197–3201.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Priyantha, N. B., Chakraborty, A., & Balakrishnan, H. (2000). The cricket location-support system. In Proceedings of the ACM International on Mobile Computing Networking. (MOBICOM), Boston, MA, Aug. 2000, pp. 32–43.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Niculescu, D., & Nath, B. (2003). Ad hoc positioning system (APS) using AoA. In Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. (INFOCOM), San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2003, pp. 1734–1743.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shang, Y., Ruml, W., & Zhang, Y. (2003). Localization from mere connectivity. In Proceedings of MobiHoc 2003, Annapolis, Maryland, June 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cong L., Zhuang W. (2002) Hybrid TDOA/AOA mobile user location for wideband CDMA cellular systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 1: 439–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Galstyan, A., Krishnamachari, B., Lerman, K., & Patterm, S. (2004). Distributed online localization in sensor networks using a mobile target. In Proceedings of the International Symposium Information Processing Sensor Networks (IPSN), Berkeley, CA, Apr. 2002, pp. 61–70.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wellenhoff, B. H., Lichtenegger, H., & Collins, J. (1997). Global Position System: Theory and practice, (fourth edn.). Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Niculescu D., Nath B. (2003) DV based positioning in ad hoc networks. Journal of Telecommunications Systems 22(1): 267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heinzelman W.B., Chandrakasan A.P., Balakrishnan H. (2002) An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 1(4): 660–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Biaz, S., Ji, Y., Qi, B., & Wu, S. (2005). Realistic radio range irregularity model and its impact on localization for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings 2005 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (IEEE Cat. No.05EX1146), pp. 669–673.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rappaport, T. S. (1996). Wireless communications principles and practice. Original edition published by Prentice Hall, Inc., a Simon & Schuster Company, pp. 70–73.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ni, S. Y., Tseng, Y. C., Chen, Y. S., & Sheu, J. P. (1999). The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network. In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. (MOBICOM), Seattle, WA, Aug. 1999, pp. 151–162.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering SchoolJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangP. R. China

Personalised recommendations