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Characterization of the Indoor/Outdoor to Indoor MIMO Radio Channel at 2.140 GHz


In this paper the radio channel characteristics of the 8 × 4 MIMO system consisting of a base station and a small terminal equipped with multiple antennas for indoor-indoor and outdoor-indoor scenarios are presented. We study the large-scale variation and small-scale characteristics of the measured channel coefficients. Although the mean received power is very much dependent on the measured location, the channel capacity seems to be unchanged when the receiver's location is altered. The data collected from different scenarios (e.g. measurement locations, antenna setting) were used to investigate the advantage of having the knowledge of the channel at both ends of the transmission link. It is shown that using the water filling algorithm there is indeed an increase in the channel capacity. At low SNR, the benefit of knowing the channel at both link ends observed in the measurement data is much higher than which can be obtained in the channel matrix with usual assumption on identical independently distributed components. Using the small-scale and large-scale information in the formulation of the channel capacity we show that in our measurement, the variation of the mean received power has a greater influence on the change of the overall system performance than the change in the environmental multipath scattering property.

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Author information

Correspondence to Hung Tuan Nguyen.

Additional information

This work is partly supported by Aalborg University under the Phd Fellowship grant.

Hung Tuan Nguyen received the BSc.E.E. in Electronic Engineering from Hanoi University of Technology Vietnam in 1999. In 2002 he obtained the MSc.E.E. in Telecommunication from Technical University of Denmark. He is now pursuing his PhD in the Antenna and Propagation Division at Aalborg University, Denmark. His interest lies inMIMOradio channel characterizations, transmission techniques for multiple antenna system and the studying the applicability of multiple antenna system in a small terminal.

Jørgen Bach Andersen received the M.Sc. and dr.techn. degrees from theTechnical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark, in 1961 and 1971, respectively. In 2003 hewas awarded Characterization of the Indoor/Outdoor to Indoor MIMO Radio Channel at 2.140 GHz 309 an honorary degree from Lund University, Sweden. From 1961 to 1973, he was with the Electromagnetics Institute, DTU, and since 1973 he has been with Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, where he is now a Professor Emeritus.

He has been a Visiting Professor in Tucson, Arizona, Christchurch, New Zealand, Vienna, Austria, and Lund, Sweden. From 1993-2003, he was Head of the Center for Personkommunikation (CPK), dealing with modern wireless communications. He has published widely on antennas, radio wave propagation, and communications, and has also worked on biological effects of electromagnetic systems. He was on the management committee for COST 231 and 259, a collaborative European program on mobile communications. He has recently published a popular monograph, “Channels, Propagation and Antennas for Mobile Communications” together with Prof. R G Vaughan.

Professor Andersen is a Life Fellowof IEEE and a formerVice President of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI).

Gert Frølund Pedersen received the B.Sc.E.E. degree, with honour, in electrical engineering from College of Technology in Dublin, Ireland in 1991, and the M.Sc.E.E. degree and Ph.D. from Aalborg University in 1993 and 2003. He has been with Aalborg University since 1993 where he currently is working as Professor in the Antenna and propagation group.

His research has focused on radio communication for mobile terminals including small antennas, antenna-systems, propagation and biological effects and has more than 100 publications including more than 10 patents. He has also worked as consultant in small antennas and developed more than 50 dedicated designs for mobile terminals starting with the first internal antenna for mobile phones in 1993 with very low SAR, First internal triple-band antenna in 1998 with low SAR and high efficiency and various antenna diversity systems rated as the most efficient on the market.

Recently he has been involved in establishing a method to measure the communication performance for mobile terminals that can be used as a basis for a 3G standard where measurements also including the antenna will be needed. Further he is involved in small terminals for 4G including several antennas (MIMO systems) and ultra wide band antennas to enhance the data communication.

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Nguyen, H.T., Andersen, J.B. & Pedersen, G.F. Characterization of the Indoor/Outdoor to Indoor MIMO Radio Channel at 2.140 GHz. Wireless Pers Commun 35, 289–309 (2005).

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  • MIMO
  • measurements
  • antenna configuration
  • mobile terminal antennas