Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Iterative Decoding of Orthogonal Space-Time Coded CPM Systems

  • 44 Accesses


We present an iterative decoding/demodulation technique for an orthogonal space-time coded continuous-phase modulation (OST-CPM) system. A low-complexity soft input and soft output (SISO) demodulator is developed based on the bidirectional soft output Viterbi algorithm (BSOVA) for the multiple antennas CPM systems. By taking advantage of the orthogonal structure, the complexity of extrinsic information extraction can be significantly reduced at each iteration.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    G.J. Foschini, “Layered Space-Time Architecture for Wireless Communication in Fading Environment When Using Multi-Element Antennas”, Bell Labs Technical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 41–59, 1996.

  2. 2.

    I.E. Telatar, “Capacity of Multi-Antenna Gaussian Channels”, AT&T Bell Labs, Internal Technical Memo, June 1995.

  3. 3.

    S. Alamouti,“A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications”, IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communication, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 1451–1458, 1998.

  4. 4.

    G. Wang and X.-G. Xia, “An Orthogonal Space-Time Coded CPM System with Fast Decoding for Two Transmit Antennas”, IEEE Transaction Information Theory, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 486–493, March 2004.

  5. 5.

    J.G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill 2000.

  6. 6.

    C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, and P. Thitimajshima, “Near Shannon Limit Error-Correcting Codign and Decoding: Turbo Codes”, in Proceedings International Conference on Communication (ICC’93), Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 1059–1063. May 1993.

  7. 7.

    S. Benedetto, D. Divsalar, G. Montorsi, and F. Pollara, “A Soft-Input Soft-Output APP Module for Iterative Decoding of Concatenated Codes”, IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 1, pp. 22–24, January 1997.

  8. 8.

    S. Benedetto, D. Divsalar, G. Montorsi, and F. Pollara, “Serial Concatenation of Interleaved Codes: Performance Analysis, Design, and Iterative Decoding”, IEEE Transaction Information Theory, Vol. 44, pp. 909–926, May 1998.

  9. 9.

    P. Moqvist and T.M. Aulin, “Serially Concatenated Continuous Phase Modulation with Iterative Decoding”, IEEE Transaction Communication, Vol. 49, No. 11, November 2001.

  10. 10.

    A. Hansson, K.M. Chugg, and T.M. Aulin, “On Forward-Adaptive Vesus Forward/Backward-Adaptive SISO Algorithms for Rayleigh Fading Chennels”, IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 5, No. 12, December 2001.

  11. 11.

    X. Zhang and M.P. Fitz, “Soft-Output Demodulator in Space-Time-Coded Continuous Phase Modulation”, IEEE Transaction Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 10, pp. 2589–2598, October 2002.

  12. 12.

    J. Tan and G.L. Stuber, “Space-Time Coded CPM”, Preprint, Online at

  13. 13.

    V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A.R. Calderbank, “Space-Time Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs”, IEEE Transaction Information Theory, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 1456–1467, July 1999.

  14. 14.

    J.B. Anderson, T. Aulin, and C. Sunberg, Digitial Phase Modulation, New York:Plenum Press, 1986.

  15. 15.

    B. Vucetic and J. Yuan, Turbo Codes: Principles and Application, Klumer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2000.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Shengli Fu.

Additional information

Shengli Fu received the B.S. and M.S. degree in telecommunication engineering from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in 1994 and 1997, respectively. In 2000, he enrolled at the Wright State University, Dayton, OH, where he received the M.S. degree in Computer Engineering. He currently pursues his Ph.D. degree in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Delaware.

His research interests include information and coding theory, MIMO wireless communication systems, and acoustic and visual signal processing.

Genyuan Wang received B.Sc and MS. degrees in Mathematics from the Shanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China, in 1985 and 1988, respectively, and his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Xidian University, Xi’an China, in 1998.

From July, 1988 to September 1994, he worked at Shanxi Normal University as an Assistant Professor and then an Associate Professor. From September 1994 to May 1998, he worked at Xidian University as a research assistant. Currently, he is Post-Doctoral Fellow at Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware. His research interests are radar imaging and radar signal processing, adaptive filter, OFDM system, channel equalization and space-time coding.

Xiang-Gen Xia (M’97,S’00) received his B.S. degree in mathematics from Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China, and his M.S. degree in mathematics from Nankai University, Tianjin, China, and his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, in 1983, 1986, and 1992, respectively.

He was a Senior/Research Staff Member at Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California, during 1995--1996. In September 1996, he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, where he is a Professor. He was a Visiting Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong during 2002–2003. Before 1995, he held visiting positions in a few institutions. His current research interests include space-time coding, MIMO and OFDM systems, and SAR and ISAR imaging. Dr. Xia has over 100 refereed journal articles published, and 6 U.S. patents awarded. He is the author of the book Modulated Coding for Intersymbol Interference Channels (New York, Marcel Dekker, 2000).

Dr. Xia received the National Science Foundation (NSF) Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Award in 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Young Investigator Award in 1998, and the Outstanding Overseas Young Investigator Award from the National Nature Science Foundation of China in 2001. He also received the Outstanding Junior Faculty Award of the Engineering School of the University of Delaware in 2001. He is currently an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, the IEEE Signal Processing Letters, the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, the International Journal of Signal Processing, and the EURASIP Journal of Applied Signal Processing. He was a guest editor of Space-Time Coding and Its Applications in the EURASIP Journal of Applied Signal Processing in 2002. He is also a Member of the Signal Processing for Communications Technical Committee and the Sensor Array and Multichannel (SAM) Technical Committee in the IEEE Signal Processing Society.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fu, S., Wang, G. & Xia, X. Iterative Decoding of Orthogonal Space-Time Coded CPM Systems. Wireless Pers Commun 31, 249–265 (2004).

Download citation


  • space-time coding
  • orthogonal design
  • CPM
  • iterative decoding