Design and evaluation of an LQI-based beaconless routing protocol for a heterogeneous MSN

  • Muhammad Taufiq Nuruzzaman
  • Huei-Wen FerngEmail author


In a mobile sensor network with a mobile sink, choosing the next hop depends on the current location of the sink. This necessitates a frequent update of routing paths within the network. In this paper, a link quality indicator (LQI) measured by a sensor when receiving a POLLING packet directly from the sink is employed to acquire the relative position of the sensor to the sink. By doing so, the sensor chooses the next hop with a higher LQI value (alternatively, closer to the mobile sink). Due to the heterogeneity of transmission power and for guaranteeing the reachability of the chosen next hop, an energy-efficient and reliable LQI-based beaconless routing (LQI-BLR) protocol is proposed in this paper. To avoid flooding REPOLLING packets, only the sensors with low LQI values are allowed to broadcast the REPOLLING packet to create a routing path for the sensors outside the transmission range of the sink. Through analytical and simulation approaches, the performance of LQI-BLR and the leader-based routing (LBR) Burgos et al. (Sensors 17(7):1587, 2017. is compared. With extensive real-scenario simulations, we successfully show that LQI-BLR outperforms LBR Burgos et al. (Sensors 17(7):1587, 2017. and the data-driven routing protocol (DDRP) Shi et al. (Int J Commun Syst 26(10):1341–1355, 2013. in terms of packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet delivery delay.


Heterogeneous mobile sensor network Routing protocol Mobile sink Link quality indicator 



The work of H.W. Ferng was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan under contract MOST 107-2221-E- 011-070-MY2.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of InformaticsSunan Kalijaga State Islamic UniversityYogyakartaIndonesia

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