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Wireless Networks

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 4359–4369 | Cite as

Bit error probability of the M-QAM scheme subject to multilevel (double) gated additive white Gaussian noise and Nakagami-m fading

  • Hugerles S. SilvaEmail author
  • Marcelo S. Alencar
  • Wamberto J. L. Queiroz
  • Danilo B. T. Almeida
  • Francisco Madeiro
Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, noise models called multilevel gated additive white Gaussian noise (GAWGN) and multilevel double gated additive white Gaussian noise (\(\hbox {G}^{2}\)AWGN) are adopted, corresponding to the sum of a white Gaussian component of variance \(\sigma _{g}^{2}\) and a white Gaussian noise component of variance \(\sigma _{i}^2\) gated by a discrete random process defined in continuous time, C(t), which takes values into a finite discrete set. A channel subject to this noise combined with the Nakagami-m fading can be used to characterize links in several environments subject to noise caused by different sources and with different intensities. In this work, new exact and closed-form expressions are presented for the bit error probability (BEP) of the M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation scheme (M-QAM) subject to Nakagami-m fading and multilevel GAWGN or multilevel \(\hbox {G}^{2}\)AWGN. The BEP curves are presented for different parameters that characterize mathematically the channel, corroborated by simulations performed with the Monte Carlo method.

Keywords

Bit error probability Impulsive noise Nakagami-m fading 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001 and by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal University of Paraíba – UFPBJoão PessoaBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of Bahia – UFBASalvadorBrazil
  3. 3.Federal University of Campina Grande – UFCGCampina GrandeBrazil
  4. 4.University of Pernambuco – UPERecifeBrazil

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