Sensor deployment in wireless sensor networks with linear topology using virtual node concept
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In a multi-hop wireless sensor network with a convergecast communication model, there is a high traffic accumulation in the neighborhood of the sink. This area constitutes the bottleneck of the network since the sensors deployed withing it rapidly exhaust their batteries. In this paper, we consider the problem of sensors deployment for lifetime maximization in a linear wireless sensor network. Existing approaches express the deployment recommendations in terms of distance between consecutive sensors. Solutions imposing such constraints on the deployment may be costly and difficult to manage. In this paper, we propose a new approach where the network is formed of virtual nodes, each associated to a certain geographical area. An analytical model of the network traffic per virtual node is proposed and a greedy algorithm to calculate the number of sensors that should form each virtual node is presented. Performance evaluation shows that the greedy deployment can improve the network lifetime by up to 40%, when compared to the uniform deployment. Moreover, the proposed approach outperforms the related work when complemented by a scheduling algorithm which reduces the messages overhearing. It is also shown that the lifetime of the network can be significantly improved if the battery capacity of each sensor is dimensioned taking into account the traffic it generates or relays.
KeywordsLinear wireless sensor network Deployment Energy efficiency Virtual node Greedy algorithm Lifetime
Funding was provided by Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon and Universite de Yaounde I.
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