Energy-spectral efficient resource allocation and power control in heterogeneous networks with D2D communication

  • Azadeh Khazali
  • Sima Sobhi-Givi
  • Hashem KalbkhaniEmail author
  • Mahrokh G. Shayesteh


Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) provide the demand for high data rates. In this study, we analyze the coexistence of femtocells and device-to-device (D2D) communication with macrocells. Interference management and decreasing energy consumption are two important issues in HetNets. To this end, we propose an efficient fractional frequency reuse (FFR)-based spectrum partitioning scheme to reduce the cross-tier interference. We also propose to use different optimization problems for resource allocation in different tiers. For this purpose, an energy efficient optimization problem is applied to D2D user equipment. Further, an optimization problem based on the spectral efficiency, i.e., throughput, is considered for macrocell and femtocell tiers. These problems are modeled as a non-cooperative game that results in low computational complexity. Iterative algorithms with fast convergence are used to solve the optimization problems. It is shown that applying different optimizations on different tiers leads to better performance than considering the same optimization for all tiers. The results indicate that the proposed FFR structure and optimization problems improve system performance. We also analyze the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of the introduced structure.


D2D communication Energy efficiency Femtocell Fractional frequency reuse Heterogeneous network Power control Resource allocation 



Base station


Cumulative distribution function



D2D Rx

D2D receiver

D2D Tx

D2D transmitter


D2D user equipment


Energy efficiency


Femtocell base station


Femtocell user equipment


Fractional frequency reuse


Heterogeneous network


Log skew normal


Macro base station


Macrocell user equipment


Probability distribution function


Quality of service


Resource block


Received signal strength


Skew normal


Spatial poisson point process


Spectral efficiency


User equipment


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Wireless Research Laboratory, Advanced Communications Research Institute (ACRI), Electrical Engineering DepartmentSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUrmia University of TechnologyUrmiaIran

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