Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Traffic-aware stateless multipath routing for fault-tolerance in IEEE 802.15.4 wireless mesh networks

Abstract

Single-path routing is widely used in wireless networks due to low resource consumption. However, it is vulnerable to link failure because such a failure may adversely affect an entire path. To overcome this, multipath routing has been proposed providing fault-tolerance. In this paper, we propose a novel multipath routing protocol called traffic-aware stateless multipath routing (TSMR) based on an overlaid tree topology comprising two topologies, namely, bounded degree tree (BDT) and root-oriented directional tree (RODT). BDT is strong on reducing routing overhead, and RODT is resilient against lossy links. By synergistically overlaying them, TSMR dynamically selects the local optimal path according to the given traffic flow and the failure on the primary path. In particular, TSMR enables stateless and low overhead routing despite multipath routing by keeping only one-hop neighbors to maintain multiple paths. To evaluate TSMR, we conducted simulations with a shadowing model reflecting lossy links, and compared with single and multipath routing protocols, such as ZTR, STR, AODV, and RPL. The simulation results show that the overall performance of TSMR surpasses that of others for packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, control overhead, memory consumption, and power consumption regardless of network size, number of sessions, and traffic flow.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. 1.

    Kwon, K., Ha, M., Kim, S., & Kim, D. (2013). TAMR: Traffic aware multipath routing for fault tolerance in 6LoWPAN. In IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 109–114).

  2. 2.

    Akyildiz, I. F., & Wang, X. (2005). A survey on wireless mesh networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 43(9), S23–S30.

  3. 3.

    Lee, M., Zhang, R., Zhu, C., Park, T., Shin, C., Jeon, Y., et al. (2013). Meshing wireless personal area networks: Introducing IEEE 802.15.5. IEEE Communications Magazine, 48(1), 54–56.

  4. 4.

    Radi, M., Dezfouli, B., Bakar, K. A., & Lee, M. (2012). Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: Survey and research challenges. Sensors-Basel, 12(1), 650–685.

  5. 5.

    sha, K., Gehlot, J., & Greve, R. (2013). Multipath routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey. Wireless Personal Communications, 70(2), 807–829.

  6. 6.

    Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Clausen, T., Hui, J., Kelsey, R., Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, J. P., & Alexander, R. (2012). RPL: IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In IETF Roll WG. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6550.

  7. 7.

    Ko, Y., & Vaidya, H. (2000). Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks. Wireless Networks, 6(4), 307–321.

  8. 8.

    Kim, T., Kim, S., Yang, J., Yoo, S., & Kim, D. (2014). Neighbor table based shortcut tree routing in ZigBee wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel Distributed Systems, 25(3), 706–716.

  9. 9.

    Sturek, D. (2006). ZigBee alliance. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://zigbee.org.

  10. 10.

    Chakeres, I. D., & Klein-Berndt, L. (2002). AODVjr, AODV simplified. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 6(3), 100–101.

  11. 11.

    Mulligan, G., & 6LoWPAN WG. (2007). The 6LoWPAN architecture. In The 4th workshop on embedded networked sensors (pp. 78–82).

  12. 12.

    Hui, J., & Thubert, P. (2011). Compression format for IPv6 datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-based networks. In IETF 6Lo WG. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6282.

  13. 13.

    Kim, K., Yoo, S., Park, Daniel, S., & Lee, J. (2007). Hierarchical routing over 6LoWPAN (HiLow). In IETF Internet-Draft. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-daniel-6lowpan-hilow-hierarchical-routing-01.

  14. 14.

    Gnawali, O., Fonseca, R., Jamieson, K., Moss, D., & Levis, P. (2009). Collection tree protocol. In The 7th ACM conference on embedded networked sensor systems (SenSys) (pp. 1–14).

  15. 15.

    Couto, D., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., & Morris, R. (2005). A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. Wireless Networks, 11(4), 419–434.

  16. 16.

    Radi, M., Dezfouli, B., Bakar, K. A., Razak, S. A., & Lee, M. (2015). LINKORD: Link ordering-based data gathering protocol for wireless sensor networks. Computing, 97(3), 205236.

  17. 17.

    Han, Z., Wu, J., Zhang, J., Liu, L., & Tian, K. (2014). A general self-organized tree-based energy-balance routing protocol for wireless sensor network. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61(2), 732–740.

  18. 18.

    Kim, K., Park, D., Montenegro, G., Yoo, S., & Kushalngar, N. (2007). 6LoWPAN ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (LOAD). In IETF Internet-Draft. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-daniel-6lowpan-load-adhoc-routing-03.

  19. 19.

    Kwon, K., Ha, M., Kim, T., Kim, S., & Kim, D. (2012). The stateless point to point routing protocol based on shortcut tree routing algorithm for IP-WSN. In IEEE 3rd international conference on the Internet of Things (IoT) (pp. 167–174).

  20. 20.

    Hong, S., Kim, D., Ha, M., Bae, S., Park, S., Jung, W., et al. (2010). SNAIL: An IP-based wireless sensor network approach to the internet of things. IEEE Wireless Communications, 17(6), 34–42.

  21. 21.

    Ha, J. Y., Park, H. S., Choi, S., & Kwon, W. H. (2007). Ehrp: Enhanced hierarchical routing protocol for ZigBee mesh networks. IEEE Communications Letter, 11(12), 1028–1030.

  22. 22.

    Liu, Y., & Qian, K. (2016). A novel tree-based routing protocol in ZigBee wireless networks. In 8th IEEE international conference on communication software and networks (ICCSN) (pp. 469–473).

  23. 23.

    Intanagonwiwat, C., Govindan, R., & Estrin, D. (2000). Directed diffusion: A scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks. In The 6th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom) (pp. 56–67).

  24. 24.

    Ganesan, D., Govindan, R., Shenker, S., & Estrin, D. (2001). Highly-resilient, energy-efficient multipath routing in wireless sensor networks. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 5(4), 11–25.

  25. 25.

    Pavkoivic, B., Theoleyre, F., & Duda, A. (2011). Multipath opportunistic RPL routing over IEEE 802.15.4. In The 14th ACM international conference on modeling, analysis and simulation of wireless and mobile systems (pp. 179–186).

  26. 26.

    Biswas, S., & Morris, R. (2005). ExOR: Opportunistic multi-hop routing for wireless networks. In The annual conference of the special interest group on data communication (SIGCOMM) (pp. 133–144).

  27. 27.

    Moghadam, M. N., & Taheri, H. (2015). Multi-class multipath routing protocol for low power wireless networks with heuristic optimal load distribution. Wireless Personal Communications, 82(2), 861–881.

  28. 28.

    Moghadam, M. N., Taheri, H., & Karrari, M. (2014). Minimum cost load balanced multipath routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. Wireless Networks, 20(8), 2469–2479.

  29. 29.

    Raid, M., Dezfouli, B., Bakar, K. A., Razak, S. A., & Hwee-Pink, T. (2014). IM2PR: Interference-minimized multipath routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Wireless Networks, 20(7), 1807–1823.

  30. 30.

    Goyal, M., Baccelli, E., Philipp, M., Brandt, A., & Martocci, J. (2013). Reactive discovery of point-to-point routes in low-power and lossy networks. IETF Roll WG. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6997.

  31. 31.

    Kim, K., Park, D., Montenegro, G., Yoo, S., & Kushalngar, N. (2010). Hydro: A hybrid routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks. In The 1st IEEE conference on smart grid communications (SmardGridComm) (pp. 268–273).

  32. 32.

    Baronti, P., Pillai, P., Chook, V. W. C., Chessa, S., Gotta, A., & Hu, Y. F. (2007). Wireless sensor networks: A survey on the state of the art and the 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards. Computer Communications, 30(7), 1655–1695.

  33. 33.

    Kim, E., Kaspar, D., & Vasseur, J. P. (2012). Design and application spaces for IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPANs). In IETF 6Lo WG. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6568

  34. 34.

    Willig, A. (2008). Recent and emerging topics in wireless industrial communications: A selection. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Information, 4(2), 102–124.

  35. 35.

    Gomez, C., & Paradells, J. (2010). Wireless home automation networks: A survey of architectures and technologies. IEEE Communications Magazine, 48(6), 92–101.

  36. 36.

    Zhao, J., & Govindan, R. (2003). Understanding packet delivery performance in dense wireless sensor networks. In The 1st international conference on embedded networked sensor systems (Sensys), Los Angeles (pp. 1–13).

  37. 37.

    Kotz, D., Newport, C., & Elliott, C. (2003). The mistaken axioms of wireless-network research. Dartmouth Computer Science Technical Report TR2003-467. Accessed Aug 1, 2016, from http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/reports/TR2003-467.

  38. 38.

    Dezfouli, B., Radi, M., Razaka, S. A., Hwee-Pink, T., & Bakar, K. A. (2015). Modeling low-power wireless communications. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 51, 102–126.

  39. 39.

    Kim, S. H., Chong, P. K., & Kim, D. (2014). A location-free semi-directional-flooding technique for on-demand routing in low-rate wireless mesh networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel Distributed Systems, 25(12), 3066–3075.

  40. 40.

    Hui, J. W., & Culler, D. E. (2008). IP is dead, long live IP for wireless sensor networks. In The proceedings of the 6th ACM conference on embedded network sensor systems (SenSys 08) (pp. 15–28).

  41. 41.

    Latr, B., Mil, P. D., Moerman, I., Dhoed, B., Demeester, P., & Dierdonck, N. V. (2006). Throughput and delay analysis of unslotted IEEE 802.15. 4. Journal of Networks, 1(1), 20–28.

  42. 42.

    Pan, M., & Tseng, Y. (2009). A lightweight network repair scheme for data collection applications in ZigBee WSNs. IEEE Communications Letter, 13(9), 649–651.

  43. 43.

    Issariyakul, T., & Hossain, E. (2011). Introduction to network simulator NS2 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

  44. 44.

    Rappaport, T. S. (2002). Wireless communications: Principles and practice (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  45. 45.

    Gungor, V., Lu, B., & Hancke, G. (2010). Opportunities and challenges of wireless sensor networks in smart grid. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 57(10), 3557–3564.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R01261610020001002, Development of agro-livestock cloud and application service for balanced production, transparent distribution and safe consumption based on GS1) and National GNSS Research Center program of Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development.

Author information

Correspondence to Kiwoong Kwon.

Additional information

The early version of this paper appears in the proceedings of International Conference on Global Communication Conference (GLOBECOM), 2013 [1].

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (pdf 769 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kwon, K., Kim, S.H., Ha, M. et al. Traffic-aware stateless multipath routing for fault-tolerance in IEEE 802.15.4 wireless mesh networks. Wireless Netw 24, 1755–1774 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-016-1427-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Multipath routing
  • Fault-tolerance
  • Tree routing
  • Resource constraints
  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • Wireless mesh networks