Fireworks: an intelligent location discovery algorithm for vehicular ad hoc networks
- 93 Downloads
Searching for and locating a certain destination in a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) are fundamental issues to ensure routing and data dissemination under high mobility and lack of fixed infrastructure. However, naive-flooding searching is too expensive and takes a considerable amount of valuable bandwidth in the network. To overcome this, GPS information of the vehicles can be exploited, which can aid searching and routing in VANETs. In this paper, we present a novel position-based searching algorithm—called Fireworks—that can be used as a location discovery algorithm in VANETs. The proposed scheme is purely reactive and has a limited usage of beacons. Fireworks algorithm provides the position of the destination vehicle without having a Location Information System infrastructure or a proactive mechanism. We show that the method is efficient and reliable while greatly reducing the searching overhead. The simulations show that the algorithm covers as many nodes as naive-flooding with less than one-fifth of the broadcast messages and with less than one-third of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). It also performs better than Acknowledgement-Based Broadcast Protocol (ABSM) in terms of total number of broadcast messages, node coverage speed and query success rate.
KeywordsVehicular ad hoc networks Location discovery Inter-vehicle communication
- 1.Loo, J., Mauri, J. L., & Ortiz, J. H. (Eds.). (2016). Mobile ad hoc networks: Current status and future trends. Cleveland: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- 2.U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2014). National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Traffic Safety Facts, Report DOT HS 809 767. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- 3.Adler, C. J. (2006). Information dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. Master Thesis, University of Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
- 5.Altayeb, M., & Mahgoub, I. (2013). A survey of vehicular ad hoc networks routing protocols. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 3(3), 829–846.Google Scholar
- 8.Jamil, F., Javaid, A., Umer, T., & Rehmani, M. H. (2016). A comprehensive survey of network coding in vehicular ad-hoc networks. Wireless Networks. doi:10.1007/s11276-016-1294-z.
- 9.Rohani, M., Gingras, D., Vigneron, V., & Gruyer, D. (2013). A new decentralized Bayesian approach for cooperative vehicle localization based on fusion of GPS and inter-vehicle distance measurements. In IEEE 2013 international conference on connected vehicles and expo (ICCVE), pp. 473–479.Google Scholar
- 10.Goli, S. A., Far, B. H., & Fapojuwo, A. O. (2015). Cooperative multi-sensor multi-vehicle localization in vehicular adhoc networks. In 2015 IEEE international conference on information reuse and integration (IRI), pp. 142–149.Google Scholar
- 11.Zheng, Y., Zang, Y., & Pahlavan, K. (2016). UWB localization modeling for electronic gaming. In 2016 IEEE international conference on consumer electronics (ICCE), pp. 170–173.Google Scholar
- 12.Collotta, M., Cascio, A. L., Pau, G., & Scatá, G. (2013). Smart localization platform for IEEE 802.11 industrial networks. In 2013 8th IEEE international symposium on industrial embedded systems (SIES), pp. 69–72.Google Scholar
- 17.Basagni, S., Chlamtac, I., Syrotiuk, V. R., & Woodward, B. A. (1998). A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM). In Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on mobile computing and networking, pp. 76–84.Google Scholar
- 22.Panichpapiboon, S., & Pattara-Atikom, W. (2012). A review of information dissemination protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 14(3), 784–798.Google Scholar
- 25.Ramakrishnan, B., Nishanth, R. B., Joe, M. M., & Selvi, M. (2015). Cluster based emergency message broadcasting technique for vehicular ad hoc network. Wireless Networks. doi:10.1007/s11276-015-1134-6.
- 26.Korkmaz, G., Ekici, E., & Ozguner, F. (2006). An efficient fully ad-hoc multi-hop broadcast protocol for inter-vehicular communication systems. In 2006 IEEE international conference on communications, Vol. 1, pp. 423–428.Google Scholar
- 27.Fasolo, E., Zanella, A., & Zorzi, M. (2006). An effective broadcast scheme for alert message propagation in vehicular ad hoc networks. In 2006 IEEE international conference on communications, Vol. 9, pp. 3960–3965.Google Scholar
- 28.Li, D., Huang, H., Li, X., Li, M., & Tang, F. (2007). A distance-based directional broadcast protocol for urban vehicular ad hoc network. In 2007 international conference on wireless communications, networking and mobile computing, pp. 1520–1523.Google Scholar
- 29.Khakbaz, S., & Fathy, M. (2008). A reliable method for disseminating safety information in vehicular ad hoc networks considering fragmentation problem. In The fourth international conference on wireless and mobile communications, 2008. ICWMC’08, pp. 25–30.Google Scholar
- 31.Tseng, Y. T., Jan, R. H., Chen, C., Wang, C. F., & Li, H. H. (2010). A vehicle-density-based forwarding scheme for emergency message broadcasts in VANETs. In The 7th IEEE international conference on mobile ad hoc and sensor systems (IEEE MASS 2010), pp. 703–708.Google Scholar
- 32.Yang, Q., & Shen, L. (2010). A Multi-Hop Broadcast scheme for propagation of emergency messages in VANET. In 12th IEEE international conference on communication technology (ICCT), pp. 1072–1075.Google Scholar
- 33.Boussedjra, M., Mouzna, J., Bangera, P., & Pai, M. M. (2009). Map-based location service for VANET. In 2009 International conference on ultra modern telecommunications & workshops, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
- 34.Brahmi, N., Boussedjra, M., Mouzna, J., Cornelio, A. K. V., & Manohara, M. M. (2010). An improved map-based location service for vehicular ad hoc networks. In IEEE 6th international conference on wireless and mobile computing, networking and communications, pp. 21–26.Google Scholar
- 35.Saleet, H., Langar, R., Basir, O., & Boutaba, R. (2009). A distributed approach for location lookup in vehicular ad hoc networks. In 2009 IEEE international conference on communications, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
- 37.Bai, X. Y., Ye, X. M., Li, J., & Jiang, H. (2009). VLS: A map-based vehicle location service for city environments. In 2009 IEEE international conference on communications, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- 38.Chang, Y. J., & Shih, T. L. (2008). Intersection location service and performance comparison of three location service algorithms for vehicular ad hoc networks in city environments. In 3rd international symposium on wireless pervasive computing. ISWPC 2008, pp. 562–565.Google Scholar
- 39.Woo, H., & Lee, M. (2011). Mobile group based location service management for vehicular ad-hoc networks. In 2011 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
- 40.Guoqing, Z., Wu, C., Liang, H., & Dejun, M. (2009). A novel location service for urban vehicular ad hoc networks. In 3rd IEEE international symposium on microwave, antenna, propagation and EMC technologies for wireless communications, pp. 513–516.Google Scholar
- 41.OpenStreetMap Home Page. http://www.openstreetmap.org/. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
- 42.Centre for Applied Informatics (ZAIK) and the Institute of Transport Research German Aerospace Centre, Sumo—Simulation of Urban Mobility. http://sumo.sourceforge.net/. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
- 43.OMNeT ++ Home Page. http://www.omnetpp.org. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.
- 44.Sommer, C., Yao, Z., German, R., & Dressler, F. (2008). Simulating the influence of IVC on road traffic using bidirectionally coupled simulators. In INFOCOM workshops 2008, IEEE, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar