Wireless Networks

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 867–878 | Cite as

VN-APIT: virtual nodes-based range-free APIT localization scheme for WSN

  • Jilong LiuEmail author
  • Zhe Wang
  • Mingwu Yao
  • Zhiliang Qiu


As an important supporting technology, the localization technology has become the basis of the practical applications of wireless sensor networks for information acquisition and processing . APIT (approximate Point-In-Triangulation) localization scheme is widely used for localization estimation in wireless sensor networks due to the advantages of the high localization accuracy and easy to deploy. However, there are some inherent defects caused by the uneven distribution of sensor nodes in APIT scheme. To overcome the problem, in this paper a novel virtual nodes-based range-free localization scheme, i.e., VN-APIT, is proposed to improve the APIT scheme. By rationally deploying virtual nodes in sensor network according to the proposed VN-APIT test theory, VN-APIT localization scheme can determine independently that whether a target node is inside or outside the triangle formed by three certain anchor nodes. Therefore, it will not subject to the effect of the density and distribution of sensor nodes and there is no the problem of the In-to-Out error and the Out-to-In error in VN-APIT scheme. Simulation evaluation shows that the proposed VN-APIT scheme is more robust and has a lower average localization error (ALE) than the conventional APIT scheme.


Wireless sensor network Localization scheme APIT  VN-APIT Virtual nodes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jilong Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhe Wang
    • 1
  • Mingwu Yao
    • 1
  • Zhiliang Qiu
    • 1
  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory on Integrated Services Networks (ISN), School of Telecommunications EngineeringXidian UniversityXianChina

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