Wireless Networks

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 2413–2424 | Cite as

Distributed dynamic load balancing in a heterogeneous network using LTE and TV white spaces

  • Ghadah Aldabbagh
  • Sheikh Tahir Bakhsh
  • Nadine Akkari
  • Sabeen Tahir
  • Sana Khan
  • John Cioffi


With advances in technology, network operators may need to set up a dynamic spectrum access overlay in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) to increase network coverage, spectrum efficiency, and the capacity of these networks. Uses of TV white space (TVWS) and long term evolution (LTE) are the combination of a new research direction to meet the increasing user demands in the domain of wireless cellular networks. Without the consideration of traffic flow, a network may operate with serious congestion problems that degrade the system performance. Congestion problems can be resolved by either reducing traffic flow or increasing the bandwidth provision. This paper has proposed Distributed dynamic load balancing (DDLB) cellular-based TVWS and LTE technique, such that a cellular-based device can operate on both TVWS and LTE by simply switching its frequency of operation when necessary. The objective of this paper is to resolve the congestion problems in a HetNet through dynamically constructing new clusters to increase the system bandwidth. The simulation results show that the proposed technique solved the bottleneck problem, reduced transmission control overhead and power consumption, and increased the average throughput and load balancing index.


HetNet LTE TVWS K-mean++ Load balancing 



This paper was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, under Grant No. (11-15- 1432 HiCi). The author, therefore, acknowledge with thanks DSR technical and financial support. The authors would like to thank Prof. John Cioffi and Haleh Tabrizi from Stanford University, due to their research collaboration, and constructive comments that improved this research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghadah Aldabbagh
    • 1
  • Sheikh Tahir Bakhsh
    • 2
  • Nadine Akkari
    • 1
  • Sabeen Tahir
    • 3
  • Sana Khan
    • 4
  • John Cioffi
    • 5
  1. 1.Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computing and Information TechnologyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Computer Skills Unit, Faculty of Computing and Information TechnologyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Information Technology Department, Faculty of Computing and Information TechnologyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Virtual CampusIslamabadPakistan
  5. 5.Department of Electrical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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