Advertisement

Wireless Networks

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 685–708 | Cite as

Automated spectrum trading mechanisms: understanding the big picture

  • Mario López-Martínez
  • Juan J. Alcaraz
  • Javier Vales-Alonso
  • Joan Garcia-Haro
Article

Abstract

Public regulatory agencies have traditionally assigned radio-electric spectrum in a static way. This has led to an almost fully assigned but sparsely and unevenly used spectrum, in which it is becoming more difficult to accommodate the increasing demand of wireless communication. This work presents a general view of automated spectrum trading, one of the mechanisms proposed to improve spectrum efficiency. Licensed operators would be able to lease their unused bandwidth to unlicensed ones in secondary markets, satisfying real time demands from users. This results in a higher and more dynamic use of spectrum while providing incentives to spectrum owners for allowing secondary users to access their unused spectrum. Several approaches can be found in this research area combining game theory, economic models and auction design, among others. We describe and organize the main objectives and challenges of spectrum trading, and present a comprehensive classification and explanation of the existing research lines, showing how different works addressed each relevant issue, discussing the benefits and drawbacks of each approach. Finally, we highlight future research trends in this topic and identify critical but possibly overlooked problems.

Keywords

Cognitive radio Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) Spectrum trading Spectrum pricing Spectrum market Game theory 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by project Grant MINECO/FEDER COINS TEC2013-47016-C2-2-R and it was also developed in the framework of “Programa de Ayudas a Grupos de Excelencia de la Región de Murcia, Fundación Séneca”. Mario López Martínez also acknowledges personal Grant BES-2011-051051.

References

  1. 1.
    FCC. (2002). Report of the spectrum efficiency working group. Techical report. FCC Spectrum Policy Task Force.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Valletti, T. (2001). Spectrum trading. Telecommunications Policy, 25(10–11), 655–670. doi: 10.1016/S0308-5961(01)00043-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mayo, J. W., & Wallsten, S. (2010). Enabling efficient wireless communications: The role of secondary spectrum markets. Information Economics and Policy, 22(1), 61–72. doi: 10.1016/j.infoecopol.2009.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mitola, J., & Maguire, G. Q. (1999). Cognitive radio: Making software radios more personal. IEEE Personal Communications, 6(4), 13–18. doi: 10.1109/98.788210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhao, Q., & Sadler, B. M. (2007). A survey of dynamic spectrum access. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 24(3), 79–89. doi: 10.1109/MSP.2007.361604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Niyato, D., Hossain, E., & Han, Z. (2009). Dynamic spectrum access in IEEE 802.22-based cognitive wireless networks: A game theoretic model for competitive spectrum bidding and pricing. IEEE Wireless Communications, 16(2), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Standard ECMA-392. (2009). MAC and PHY for operation in TV white space.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    IEEE 802.11 Working group on wireless local area networks. http://www.ieee802.org/11/. Accessed 10 July 2013.
  9. 9.
    Sun, C., Tran, H. N., Rahman, M. A., Filin, S., Alemseged, Y. D., Villardi, G., & Harada, H. (2009). P802.19.1 assumptions and architecture.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    IEEE P1900.5 policy language and policy architectures for managing cognitive radio for dynamic spectrum access applications. https://ict-e3.eu/project/standardization/IEEE-SCC41.html. Accessed 10 July 2013.
  11. 11.
    Yoon, H., Hwang, J., & Weiss, M. B. H. (2012). An analytic research on secondary-spectrum trading mechanisms based on technical and market changes. Computer Networks, 56(1), 3–19. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2011.05.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adler, J. (2012). Raging bulls: How Wall Street got addicted to light-speed trading. Wired.com. Retrieved from, http://www.wired.com/business/2012/08/ff_wallstreet_trading/all/. Accessed 15 June 2013.
  13. 13.
    Maharjan, S., Zhang, Y., & Gjessing, S. (2011). Economic approaches for cognitive radio networks: A survey. Wireless Personal Communications, 57(1), 33–51. doi: 10.1007/s11277-010-0005-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hossain, E., Niyato, D., & Han, Z. (2009). Dynamic spectrum access and management in cognitive radio networks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2008). Spectrum trading in cognitive radio networks: a market-equilibrium-based approach. IEEE Wireless Communications, December, 7180.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang, Y., Niyato, D., Wang, P., & Hossain, E. (2012). Auction-based resource allocation in cognitive radio systems. IEEE Communications Magazine, 50(11), 108–120. doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2012.6353690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang, J. (2013). Market mechanisms for cooperative spectrum trading with incomplete network information. IEEE Communications Magazine, (October), 201207.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, Z., Long, K., & Wang, J. (2013). Self-organization paradigms and optimization approaches for cognitive radio technologies: A survey. IEEE Wireless Communications, (April), 3642.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akkarajitsakul, K., Hossain, E., Niyato, D., & Kim, D. I. (2011). Game theoretic approaches for multiple access in wireless networks: A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 13(3), 372–395. doi: 10.1109/SURV.2011.122310.000119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao, Y., Mao, S., Neel, J., & Reed, J. (2009). Performance evaluation of cognitive radios: Metrics, utility functions, and methodology. Proceedings of the IEEE, 97(4).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yu, H., Gao, L., Li, Z., Wang, X., & Hossain, E. (2010). Pricing for uplink power control in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 59(4), 1769–1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gopinathan, A., Li, Z., & Wu, C. (2011). Strategyproof auctions for balancing social welfare and fairness in secondary spectrum markets. 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, 30203028. doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2011.5935145.
  23. 23.
    Zhang, G., Yang, K., Song, J., & Li, Y. (2012). Fair and efficient spectrum splitting for unlicensed secondary users in cooperative cognitive radio networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 71(1), 299–316. doi: 10.1007/s11277-012-0816-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vidal, J. R., Pla, V., Guijarro, L., & Martinez-Bauset, J. (2013). Dynamic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks using truthful mechanisms and virtual currency. Ad Hoc Networks, 11(6), 1858–1873. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.04.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2007). A game-theoretic approach to competitive spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007, 1620. doi: 10.1109/WCNC.2007.9.
  26. 26.
    Ileri, O., Samardzija, D., & Mandayam, N. B. (2005). Demand responsive pricing and competitive spectrum allocation via a spectrum server. 2005 First IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, 2005. DySPAN 2005, 194202.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Niyato, D., Hossain, E., & Han, Z. (2009). Dynamics of multiple-seller and multiple-buyer spectrum trading in cognitive radio networks: A game-theoretic modeling approach. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 8(8), 1009–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhou, X., Gandhi, S., Suri, S., & Zheng, H. (2008). eBay in the Sky: Strategy-proof wireless spectrum auctions. Proceedings of the 14th ACM international conference on Mobile computing and networking. MobiCom 08, 213.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2008). Market-equilibrium, competitive, and cooperative pricing for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: Analysis and comparison. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 7(11), 4273–4283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2010). A microeconomic model for hierarchical bandwidth sharing in dynamic spectrum access networks. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 59(7), 865–877.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang, X., Li, Z., Xu, P., Xu, Y., Gao, X., & Chen, H.-H. (2010). Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks-an auction-based approach. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part B: Cybernetics, 40(3), 587–596. doi: 10.1109/TSMCB.2009.2034630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2008). Competitive pricing for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: Dynamic game, inefficiency of Nash equilibrium, and collusion. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26(1), 192–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duan, L., Huang, J., & Shou, B. (2010). Cognitive mobile virtual network operator: Investment and pricing with supply uncertainty. 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, (February 2009).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Duan, L., Huang, J., & Shou, B. (2010). Competition with dynamic spectrum leasing. IEEE Symposium New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks 2010, 111.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhu, K., Niyato, D., Wang, P., & Han, Z. (2012). Dynamic spectrum leasing and service selection in spectrum secondary market of cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 11(3), 1136–1145. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2012.010312.110732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xu, H., Jin, J., & Li, B. (2010). A secondary market for spectrum. 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, 15. doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2010.5462277.
  37. 37.
    Sengupta, S., Chatterjee, M., & Ganguly, S. (2007). An economic framework for spectrum allocation and service pricing with competitive wireless service providers. 2007 2nd IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, 8998. doi: 10.1109/DYSPAN.2007.19.
  38. 38.
    Sengupta, S., & Chatterjee, M. (2009). An economic framework for dynamic spectrum access and service pricing. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 17(4), 1200–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang, F., Krunz, M., & Cui, S. (2008). Price-based spectrum management in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2(1), 74–87. doi: 10.1109/JSTSP.2007.914877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gao, L., Wang, X., Xu, Y., & Zhang, Q. (2011). Spectrum trading in cognitive radio networks: A contract-theoretic modeling approach. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 29(4), 843–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huang, J., Berry, R. A., & Honig, M. L. (2006). Auction-based spectrum sharing. Mobile Networks and Applications, 11(3), 405–418. doi: 10.1007/s11036-006-5192-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jayaweera, S. K., & Li, T. (2009). Dynamic spectrum leasing in cognitive radio networks via primary-secondary user power control games. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 8(6), 3300–3310. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2009.081230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jayaweera, S. K., Vazquez-Vilar, G., & Mosquera, C. (2010). Dynamic spectrum leasing: A new paradigm for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 59(5), 2328–2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vazquez-Vilar, G., Mosquera, C., & Jayaweera, S. K. (2010). Primary user enters the game: Performance of dynamic spectrum leasing in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 9(12), 3625–3629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2007). Equilibrium and disequilibrium pricing for spectrum trading in cognitive radio: A control-theoretic approach. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2007. GLOBECOM 07, 48524856. doi: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2007.920.
  46. 46.
    Xu, P., Kapoor, S., & Li, X. (2011). Market equilibria in spectrum trading with multi-regions and multi-channels. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 2011, 04.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Simeone, O., Stanojev, I., Savazzi, S., Spagnolini, U., & Pickholtz, R. (2008). Spectrum leasing to cooperating secondary ad hoc networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26(1), 203–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang, J., & Zhang, Q. (2009). Stackelberg game for utility-based cooperative cognitive radio networks. Proceedings of the tenth ACM international Symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing. MobiHoc 09, 2331.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Li, D., Xu, Y., Wang, X., & Guizani, M. (2011). Coalitional game theoretic approach for secondary spectrum access in cooperative cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 10(3), 844–856. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2011.011111.100216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Duan, L., Gao, L., & Huang, J. (2011). Contract-based cooperative spectrum sharing. 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, 399407.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jia, J., & Zhang, Q. (2008). Competitions and dynamics of duopoly wireless service providers in dynamic spectrum market. Proceedings of the 9th ACM international Symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing. MobiHoc 08, 313322.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maille, P., & Tuffin, B. (2009). Price war with partial spectrum sharing for competitive wireless service providers. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2009. GLOBECOM 2009, 1–6.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mutlu, H., Alanyali, M., & Starobinski, D. (2008). Spot pricing of secondary spectrum usage in wireless cellular networks. IEEE INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conference on Computer Communications, 682690. doi: 10.1109/INFOCOM.2008.118.
  54. 54.
    Yang, L., Kim, H., Zhang, J., Chiang, M., & Tan, C. (2011). Pricing-based spectrum access control in cognitive radio networks with random access. 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, 22282236.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kasbekar, G. S., & Sarkar, S. (2010). Spectrum auction framework for access allocation in cognitive radio networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 18(6), 1841–1854. doi: 10.1109/TNET.2010.2051453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Niyato, D., & Hossain, E. (2007). Hierarchical spectrum sharing in cognitive radio: a microeconomic approach. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007, 38223826. doi: 10.1109/WCNC.2007.699.
  57. 57.
    Xu, D., Liu, X., & Han, Z. (2012). Decentralized bargain: A two-tier market for efficient and flexible dynamic spectrum access. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11. doi: 10.1109/TMC.2012.130.
  58. 58.
    Zhu, Y., Li, B., & Li, Z. (2012). Truthful spectrum auction design for secondary networks. 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, 873881. doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2012.6195836.
  59. 59.
    Xing, Y., Chandramouli, R., & Cordeiro, C. (2007). Price dynamics in competitive agile spectrum access markets. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 25(3), 613–621. doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2007.070411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gao, L., Xu, Y., & Wang, X. (2011). MAP: Multiauctioneer progressive auction for dynamic spectrum access. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 10(8), 1144–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhou, X., & Zheng, H. (2009). TRUST: A general framework for truthful double spectrum auctions. IEEE INFOCOM 2009, 9991007.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jia, J., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Q., & Liu, M. (2009). Revenue generation for truthful spectrum auction in dynamic spectrum access. In Proceedings of the tenth ACM international Symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, p. 312.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yi, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, Q., Jiang, T., & Zhang, J. (2010). Cooperative communication-aware spectrum leasing in cognitive radio networks. 2010 IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum, 111. doi: 10.1109/DYSPAN.2010.5457883.
  64. 64.
    Guijarro, L., Pla, V., Tuffin, B., Maille, P., & Vidal, J. R. (2011). Competition and bargaining in wireless networks with spectrum leasing. 2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 16.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dixit, S., Periyalwar, S., & Yanikomeroglu, H. (2010). A competitive and dynamic pricing model for secondary users in infrastructure based networks. 2010 IEEE 72nd Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall), 15. doi: 10.1109/VETECF.2010.5594326.
  66. 66.
    Huang, J., Han, Z., Chiang, M., & Poor, H. (2008). Auction-based resource allocation for cooperative communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26(7), 1226–1237. doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2008.080919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wang, S., Xu, P., Xu, X., Tang, S., Li, X., & Liu, X. (2010). TODA: Truthful Online Double Auction for spectrum allocation in wireless networks. 2010 IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum (DySPAN), 110. doi: 10.1109/DYSPAN.2010.5457905.
  68. 68.
    Ji, Z., & Liu, K. J. R. (2008). Multi-stage pricing game for collusion-resistant dynamic spectrum allocation. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26(1), 182–191. doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2008.080116.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Duan, L., Huang, & JianweiShou, B. (2011). Duopoly competition in dynamic spectrum leasing and pricing. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11(11), 1706–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Duan, L., Huang, J., & Shou, B. (2011). Investment and pricing with spectrum uncertainty: A cognitive operators perspective. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 10(11), 1590–1604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Min, A., Zhang, X., Choi, J., & Shin, K. G. (2012). Exploiting spectrum heterogeneity in dynamic spectrum market. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11(12), 2020–2032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kim, H., Choi, J., & Shin, K. G. (2011). Wi-Fi 2.0: Price and quality competitions of duopoly cognitive radio wireless service providers with time-varying spectrum availability. 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, 24532461. doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2011.5935067.
  73. 73.
    Duan, L., Gao, L., & Huang, J. (2014). Cooperative spectrum sharing: A contract-based approach. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 13(1), 174–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yan Y., Huang J., & Wang J. (2013). Dynamic bargaining for relay-based cooperative spectrum sharing. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas Communications, p. 14801493.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Feng, X., Sun, G., Gan, X., Yang, F., Tian, X., Wang, X., et al. (2014). Cooperative spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: A distributed matching approach. IEEE Transactions on Communications. doi: 10.1109/TCOMM.2014.2322352.
  76. 76.
    Tran, T. T., & Kong, H. Y. (2014). Exploitation of diversity in cooperative spectrum sharing with the four-way relaying AF transmission. Wireless Personal Communications. doi: 10.1007/s11277-014-1679-1.
  77. 77.
    Shao, C., Roh, H., & Lee, W. (2014). Aspiration level-based strategy dynamics on the coexistence of spectrum cooperation and leasing. IEEE Communications Letters, 18(1), 70–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goldsmith, A., Jafar Ali, S., Maric, I., & Srinivasa, S. (2009). Breaking spectrum gridlock with cognitive radios: An information theoretic perspective. Proceedings of the IEEE, 97(5).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Han, Y., Ting, S. H., & Pandharipande, A. (2010). Secondary user selection. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 9(9), 2914–2923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Courcoubetis, C., & Weber, R. (2003). Pricing communication networks: Economics, technology and modelling. London: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Liu, K., & Wang, B. (2010). Cognitive radio networking and security: A game-theoretic view. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yan, Y., Huang, J., & Wang, J. (2012). Dynamic bargaining for relay-based cooperative spectrum sharing. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, (August), 14801493.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gandhi, S., Buragohain, C., Cao, L., Zheng, H., & Suri, S. (2008). Towards real-time dynamic spectrum auctions. Computer Networks, 52(4), 879–897. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2007.11.003.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yu, F. R. (2011). Cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tan, Y., Sengupta, S., & Subbalakshmi, K. P. (2010). Competitive spectrum trading in dynamic spectrum access markets: A price war. 2010 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference. GLOBECOM 2010, 15. doi: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5683358.
  86. 86.
    Shen, S., Lin, X., & Lok, T. M. (2013). Dynamic spectrum leasing under uncertainty: A stochastic variational inequality approach. 2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 727732. doi: 10.1109/WCNC.2013.6554653.
  87. 87.
    Gao, L., Huang, J., & Shou B. (2013). An integrated contract and auction design for secondary spectrum trading. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, (March), 581592.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pan, M., Liang, S., Xiong, H., Chen, J., & Li, G. (2006). A novel bargaining based dynamic spectrum management scheme in reconfigurable systems. In 2006 International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC06) (Vol. 00, p. 5454). IEEE. doi: 10.1109/ICSNC.2006.10.
  89. 89.
    Myerson, R. B. (199). Game theory: Analysis of conflict. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ji, Z., & Liu, K. J. R. (2006). WSN03-3: Dynamic pricing approach for spectrum allocation in wireless networks with selfish users. In IEEE Globecom 2006 (pp. 15). IEEE. doi: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2006.939.
  91. 91.
    Shoham, Y., Powers, R., & Grenager, T. (2007). If multi-agent learning is the answer, what is the question? Artificial Intelligence, 171(7), 365–377. doi: 10.1016/j.artint.2006.02.006.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yan, Y., Huang, J., Zhong, X., Zhao, M., & Wang, J. (2011). Sequential bargaining in cooperative spectrum sharing: Incomplete information with reputation effect. In 2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference—GLOBECOM 2011 (pp. 15). IEEE. doi: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2011.6134516.
  93. 93.
    Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zhu, H., Pandana, C., & Liu, K. J. R. (2007). Distributive opportunistic spectrum access for cognitive radio using correlated equilibrium and no-regret learning. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007, 1115.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Maskery, M., Krishnamurthy, V., & Zhao, Q. (2009). Decentralized dynamic spectrum access for cognitive radios: Cooperative design of a non-cooperative game. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 57(2), 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Levent-Levi, T. (2012). Will MVNOs live long and prosper? Amdocs blogs. Retrieved from, http://blogs.amdocs.com/voices/2012/06/04/what-do-i-want-for-my-22nd-birthday-my-own-mvno-please/. Accessed 10 May 2013.
  97. 97.
    Kim, S. (2013). A repeated Bayesian auction game for cognitive radio spectrum sharing scheme. Computer Communications, 36(8), 939–946. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2013.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang, B., & Liu, K. (2011). Advances in cognitive radio networks: A survey. IEEE Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 5(1), 5–23. doi: 10.1109/JSTSP.2010.2093210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Domenico, A. De, Strinati, E. C., & Di Benedetto, M.-G. (2012). A survey on MAC strategies for cognitive radio networks. IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, 14(1), 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lee, K., Simeone, O., Chae, C.-B., & Kang, J. (2011). Spectrum leasing via cooperation for enhanced physical-layer secrecy. In 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (p. 15). IEEE. doi: 10.1109/icc.2011.5963501.
  101. 101.
    Pantisano, F., et al. (2012). Spectrum leasing as an incentive towards uplink macrocell and femtocell cooperation. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas Communications, 30(3), 30–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yi, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, Q., Jiang, T., & Zhang, J. (2010), Cooperative communication-aware spectrum leasing in cognitive radio networks. 2010 IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum, April 2010.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Galla, T., & Farmer, J. D. (2013). Complex dynamics in learning complicated games. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(4), 1232–6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1109672110.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Elias, J., & Martignon, F. (2013). Joint operator pricing and network selection game in cognitive radio networks: Equilibrium, system dynamics and price of anarchy. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 62(9), 4576–4589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario López-Martínez
    • 1
  • Juan J. Alcaraz
    • 1
  • Javier Vales-Alonso
    • 1
  • Joan Garcia-Haro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information and Communications TechnologiesTechnical University of Cartagena (UPCT)CartagenaSpain

Personalised recommendations