Traditional single-channel MAC protocols for wireless ad hoc and sensor networks favor energy-efficiency over throughput. More recent multi-channel MAC protocols display higher throughput but less energy efficiency. In this article we propose NAMAC, a negotiator-based multi-channel MAC protocol in which specially designated nodes called negotiators maintain the sleeping and communication schedules of nodes within their communication ranges in static wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Negotiators facilitate the assignation of channels and coordination of communications windows, thus allowing individual nodes to sleep and save energy. We formally define the problem of finding the optimal set of negotiators (i.e., minimizing the number of selected negotiators while maximizing the coverage of the negotiators) and prove that the problem is NP-Complete. Accordingly, we propose a greedy negotiator-election algorithm as part of NAMAC. In addition, we prove the correctness of NAMAC through a rigorous model checking and analyze various characteristics of NAMAC—the throughput of NAMAC, impact of negotiators on network capacity, and storage and computational overhead. Simulation results show that NAMAC, at high network loads, consumes 36 % less energy while providing 25 % more throughput than comparable state-of-art multi-channel MAC protocols for ad hoc networks. Additionally, we propose a lightweight version of NAMAC and show that it outperforms (55 % higher throughput with 36 % less energy) state-of-art MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ahn, G. S., Miluzzo, E., & Campbell, A. T. (2006). A funneling-mac for high performance data collection in sensor networks. In Proceedings of conference on embedded networked sensor systems (SenSys).
Bahl, P., Chandra, R., & Dunagan, J. (2004). SSCH: Slotted seeded channel hopping for capacity improvement. In Proceedings of international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom).
Bao, L., & Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J. (2001). A new approach to channel access scheduling for ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom).
Buettner, M., Yee, G. V., Anderson, E., & Han, R. (2006). X-MAC: A short preamble mac protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of conference on embedded networked sensor systems (SenSys).
Chen, X., Han, P., He, Q. S., liang Tu, S., & Chen, Z. L. (2006). A multi-channel mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of conference on information technology (CIT).
Clarke, E., Grumberg, O., & Long, D. (1994). Model checking and abstraction. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 16, 1512–1542.
El-Hoiydi, A., & Decotignie, J. D. (2004). WiseMAC: An ultra low power mac protocol for the downlink of infrastructure wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of symposium on computers and communications (ISCC).
Ergen, S. C., & Varaiya, P. (2006). PEDAMACS: Power efficient and delay aware medium access protocol for sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 5(7), 920–930.
Ghosh, A., Incel, O., Kumar, V., & Krishnamachari, B. (2009). Multi-channel scheduling algorithms for fast aggregated convergecast in sensor networks. In Proceedings of international conference on mobile adhoc and sensor systems (MASS).
Jovanovic, M., & Djordjevic, G. (2007). TFMAC: Multi-channel mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of international conference on telecommunications in modern satellite, cable and broadcasting services (TELSIKS).
Kim, Y., Shin, H., & Cha, H. (2008). Y-MAC: An energy-efficient multi-channel mac protocol for dense wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of international conference on information processing in sensor networks (IPSN).
Kyasanur, P., & Vaidya, N. H. (2005). Capacity of multi-channel wireless networks: Impact of number of channels and interfaces. In Proceedings of international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom).
Li, J., Haas, Z. J., Sheng, M., & Chen, Y. (2003). Performance evaluation of modified IEEE 802.11 MAC for multi-channel multi-hop ad hoc network. In Proceedings of international conference on advanced information networking and applications (AINA).
(2009). NUSMV: The nusmv system. http://nusmv.irst.itc.it.
Polastre, J., Hill, J., & Culler, D. (2004). Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of conference on embedded networked sensor systems (SenSys).
Rhee, I., Warrier, A., Aia, M., Min, J., & Sichitiu, M. (2008). Z-MAC: A hybrid mac for wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 16(3), 511–524.
Garey, M., & Johnson, D. (1979). Computers and interactability: A guide to te theory of NP-comppletness. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Karp, R. (1972). Reducibility among combinatorial problems. Complexity of Computer Computations, 85–103.
So, J., & Vaidya, N. H. (2004). Multi-channel mac for ad hoc networks: handling multi-channel hidden terminals using a single transceiver. In Proceedings of international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing (MobiHoc).
Tzamaloukas, A., & Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J. (2001). A receiver-initiated collision-avoidance protocol for multi-channel networks. In Proceedings of twenty-first annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies (Infocom).
Vedantham, R., Kakumanu, S., Lakshmanan, S., & Sivakumar, R. (2006). Component based channel assignment in single radio, multi-channel ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom).
Ye, W., Heidemann, J., & Estrin, D. (2002). An energy-efficient mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of twenty-first annual joint conference of the ieee computer and communications societies (Infocom).
Zeng, X., Bagrodia, R., & Gerla, M. (1998). GloMoSim: A library for parallel simulation of large-scale wireless networks. In Proceedings of workshop on parallel and distributed (WPDS).
Zhang, J., Zhou, G., Huang, C., Son, S. H., & Stankovic, J. A. (2007). TMMAC: An energy efficient multi-channel mac protocol for ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of international communications conference (ICC).
Zhou, G., Wu, Y., Yan, T., He, T., Huang, C., Stankovic, J. A., & Abdelzaher, T. F. (2010). A multifrequency MAC specially designed for wireless sensor network applications. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 9(4), 1–41.
He, T., Krishnamurthy, S., Stankovic, J., Abdelzaher, T., Luo, L., & Stoleru, R. et al. (2006). VigilNet: An integrated sensor network system for energy-efficient surveillance. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 2(1), 1–38.
Vazirani, V. (2001). Approximation Algorithms. In: Springer.
Zhou, W., & Stoleru, R. (2010). Towards higher throughput and energy eciency in dense wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. In Proceedings of international symposium on applied computing (SAC).
The authors acknowledge NSF support through grants #1127449, #1145858 and #0923203.
About this article
Cite this article
Won, M., Yang, C., Zhou, W. et al. Energy efficient multi-channel media access control for dense wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Wireless Netw 19, 1537–1551 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-013-0549-1
- Wireless sensor networks
- Wireless adhoc networks
- Multi-channel and energy efficiency