Wireless Networks

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 579–589

TDOA positioning in NLOS scenarios by particle filtering



A method is proposed for position estimation from non line of sight time difference of arrivals (TDOA) measurements. A general measurement model for TDOA accounting for non line of sight conditions is developed; then, several simplifying working assumptions regarding this model are discussed to allow the efficient implementation of a particle filter localization algorithm. This algorithm is tested and compared with an extended Kalman filter procedure, both in simulation, generating artificial measures, and with real data.


Mobile location Time difference of arrival (TDOA) Particle filter Non line of sight (NLOS) 


  1. 1.
    Aatique, M. Evaluation of TDOA techniques for position location in CDMA systems. Thesis. [Online] available at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-82597-03345/unrestricted/aatique.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Alavi, B., & Pahlavan, K. (2003). Bandwidth effect on distance error modeling for indoor geolocation. In IEEE proceedings on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC 03).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alavi, B., & Pahlavan, K. (2006). Modeling of the TOA based distance measurement error using UWB indoor radio measurements. IEEE Communication Letters, 10(4), 275-277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chan, Y. T., Tsui, W. Y., So, H. C., & Ching, P. C. (2006). Time-of-arrival based localization under NLOS conditions. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 55(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, B. S., Yang, C. Y., Liao, F. K., & Liao, J. F. (2009). Mobile location estimator in a rough wireless environment using extended Kalman-based IMM and data fusion. IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, 58(3), 1157–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cong, L., & Zhuang, W., (2005). Non-line-of-sight error mitigation in mobile location. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 4(2), 560–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Angelis, G., Baruffa, G., & Cacopardi, S. (2010). Simplified PN code acquisition strategy for location-aware mobile handsets. In 5th advanced satellite mobile systems conference and 11th signal processing for space communications workshop. Italy: Cagliari.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenstein, L. J., Erceg, V., Yeh, Y. S., & Clark, M. V. (1997). A new path-gain/delay-spread propagation model for digital cellular channels. IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, 46(2), 477–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang, J. Y., & Wan, Q. (2007). Comments on the Cramer−Rao bounds of hybrid TOA/RSS and TDOA/RSS location estimation schemes. IEEE Communications Letters, 11(11), 848–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kawabata, M., Aso, M., Saikawa, T., & Hattori, T. (2005). Performance evaluation of TDOA system based on maximum likelihood location estimation in cellular systems. Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, 88(6).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lay, K. T., & Chao, W. K. (2005). Mobile positioning based on TOA/TSOA/TDOA measurements with NLOS error reduction. In Proceedings of international symposium on intelligent signal processing and communication systems, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, H., Wang, J., & Liu, Y. (2009). Passive coherent radar tracking algorithm based on particle filter and multiple TDOA measurements. In 2nd international congress on image and signal processing (CISP09).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liang, C., & Lenan, W. (2009). Mobile localization with NLOS mitigation using improved Rao-Blackwellized particle filtering algorithm. In IEEE 13th international symposium on consumer electronics.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liao, J. F., & Chen, B. S. (2006). Robust mobile location estimator with NLOS mitigation using interacting multiple model algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 5(11), 3002–3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ma, C., Klukas, R., & Lachapelle, G. (2007). A nonline-of-sight error-mitigation for TOA measurements. IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, 56(2): 641–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marco, A., Casas, R., Asensio, A., Coarasa, V., Blasco, R., & Ibarz, A. (2008). Least median of squares for non-line-of-sight error mitigation in GSM localization. In IEEE 19th international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile communications.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mikhalev, A., & Ormondroyd, R. F. (2007). Comparison of hough transform and particle filter methods of emitter geolocation using fusion of TDOA data. In 4th workshop on positioning, navigation and communications (WPNC 07), Hannover, Germany.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Misra, S., Zhang, W., & Xue, G. (2007). A techinque to enhance localization in the presence of NLOS error. In Proceedings of the global communications conference (Globecom).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morelli, C., Nicoli, M., Rampa, V., & Spagnolini, U. (2007). Hidden Markov models for radio localization in mixed LOS/NLOS conditions. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 55(4), 877–880.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nordlund, P. J., Gunnarsson, F., & Gustafsson, F. (2002). Particle filters for positioning in wireless networks. In Proceedings of the European signal processing conference.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sayed, A. H., Tarighat, A., & Khajehnouri, N. (2005). Network-based wireless location. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 22(4), 24–40.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Silventoinen, M. I., & Rantalainen, T. (1996). Mobile station emergency locating in GSM. IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, 23(21), 631–655.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thrun, S., Burgard, W., & Fox, D. (2005). Probabilistic robotics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.MATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang, W., & Zhu, Q. (2009). Sequential Monte Carlo localization in mobile sensor networks. Wireless Networks, 15(4), 481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Venkatraman, S., Caffery, J., Jr., & You, H. R. (2004). A novel TOA location algorithm using LoS range estimation for NLoS environments. IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, 53(5), 121–135.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wylie, M. P., & Holtzman, J. (1996). The non-line of sight problem in mobile location estimation. In 5th IEEE international conference on universal personal communications.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Woo, S. S., You, H. R., & Koh, J. S. (2000). The NLOS mitigation technique for position location using IS-95 CDMA networks. IEEE VTC, 6, 2556–2560.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Boccadoro
    • 1
  • Guido De Angelis
    • 1
  • Paolo Valigi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronic and Information Engineering (DIEI)University of PerugiaPerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations