Advertisement

Wireless Networks

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 401–411 | Cite as

Enhanced fast handover for proxy mobile IPv6 in vehicular networks

  • Mun-Suk Kim
  • SuKyoung Lee
  • Nada Golmie
Article

Abstract

To reduce the handover latency in PMIPv6, Fast Handover for PMIPv6 (PFMIPv6) is being standardized in the IETF. On the other hand, vehicle-roadside data access has been envisioned to be useful in many commercial Internet services; however, integrating the current Internet into Vehicular Networks (VNs) presents a new set of challenges. In particular, to provide rapid IP handover in the VNs, simply applying PFMIPv6 to VNs may not improve handover performance since PFMIPv6 handover restricts the previous Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) from forwarding the packets until it receives an HAck/HI from the next MAG, even though the vehicle may have already arrived at the next MAG. We also note that PFMIPv6 does not consider the impact of geographic restriction on vehicular mobility. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an enhanced PFMIPv6 (ePFMIPv6) for VNs in which the serving MAG pre-establishes a tunnel with candidate next MAGs for next MAG so that the packets can be immediately forwarded to the next MAG once the serving MAG is indicated the vehicle’s handover by the serving road side unit. To evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol, we derive analytical expressions for packet loss, latency and signaling overhead caused by ePFMIPv6 and PFMIPv6 handovers. Our analytical study is verified by simulation results.

Keywords

PMIPv6 Fast handover Vehicular networks Packet loss Handover latency 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD, Basic Research Promotion Fund) (KRF-2008-531-D00016).

References

  1. 1.
    Johnson, D., Perkins, C., & Arkko, J. (2004, June). Mobility Support in IPv6, RFC 3775.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gundavelli, S., et al. (2007, November). Proxy Mobile IPv6, RFC 5213.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    3GPP TS Group Services and System Aspects. (2008, June). Architecture Enhancements for non-3GPP Accesses (Release8), TS 23.402, v.8.2.0.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yokota, H., Chowdhury, K., Koodli, R., Patil, B., & Xia, F. (2009, December). Fast Handovers for PMIPv6, draft-ietf-mipshop-pfmipv6-12.txt.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koodli, R., (Ed.). (2009, July ). Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers, RFC 5568.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ott, J., & Kutscher, D. (2004). Drive-thru Internet: IEEE 802.11b for automobile users. In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 04’.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnold, T., Lloyd, W., Zhao, J., & Cao, G. (2008, March). IP address passing for VANETs. In Proceedings of IEEE PerCom’08.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, W., Xie, F., & Chatterjee, M. (2009). Small-scale and large-scale routing in vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58(9), 5200–5213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chiu, K., Hwang, R., & Chen, Y. (2009, June). A cross layer fast handover scheme in VANET. In Proceedings of IEEE ICC.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chiu, K., Hwang, R., & Chen, Y. (2011). Cross-layer design vehicle-assisted handover scheme in VANETs. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 11(7), 916–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, P., Fang, Y., & Lin, P. (2007). Optimal placement of gateways in vehicular networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 56(6), 3421–3430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dikaiakos, M., Florides, A., Nadeem, T., & Iftode, L. (2007). Location-aware services over vehicular ad-hoc networks using car-to-car communication. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, 25(8), 1590–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tseng, C.-C., Yen, L.-H., Chang, H.-H., & Hsu, K.-C. (2005) Topology-aided cross-layer fast handoff designs for IEEE 802.11/mobile IP environments. IEEE Communications Magazine, 43(12), 156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rappaport, T.S. (2002). Wireless communications: Principles and practice (2nd Edn.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kong, K., Lee, W., Han, Y., & Shin, M. (2008). Handover latency analysis of a network-based localized mobility management protocol. In Proceedings of IEEE ICC’08.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nawaporn, W., Fan, B., Priyantha, M., Yarsha, S., & Ozan, T. (2007). Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, 25(8), 1538–1556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    TIGER: Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System. [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceYonsei UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations