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Wireless Networks

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 147–164 | Cite as

Cognitive radio: survey on communication protocols, spectrum decision issues, and future research directions

  • José Marinho
  • Edmundo Monteiro
Article

Abstract

Currently, the radio spectrum is statically allocated and divided between licensed and unlicensed frequencies. Due to this inflexible policy, some frequency bands are growing in scarcity, while large portions of the entire radio spectrum remain unused independently of time and location. Cognitive Radio is a recent network paradigm that aims a more flexible and efficient usage of the radio spectrum. Basically, it allows wireless devices to opportunistically access portions of the entire radio spectrum without causing any harmful interference to licensed users. The present document surveys the literature on Cognitive Radio. It aims to provide a comprehensive and self-contained description of this research topic area, mainly focusing on communication protocols, spectrum decision issues, and future research directions. It is a tutorial in nature and consequently does not require any previous knowledge about Cognitive Radio. Readers are only required to have some general background on wireless data networks. Emphasis is put on Cognitive Radio genesis, issues that must be addressed, related technologies, standardization efforts, the state of the art, and future research directions according to the vision of the authors.

Keywords

Cognitive radio Dynamic spectrum access Medium access control Spectrum decision 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions which have significantly contributed to improve this paper. The first author is also grateful to the support which was provided in the context of PROTEC, a Portuguese PhD supporting program.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ISEC—Engineering Institute of Coimbra, Polytechnic Institute of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.CISUC—Centre for Informatics and Systems of the University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.DEI-UC—Department of Informatics EngineeringUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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