The IEEE 802.11 protocol inherently provides the same long-term throughput to all the clients associated with a given access point (AP). In this paper, we first identify a clever, low-power jamming attack that can take advantage of this behavioral trait: the placement of a low-power jammer in a way that it affects a single legitimate client can cause starvation to all the other clients. In other words, the total throughput provided by the corresponding AP is drastically degraded. To fight against this attack, we design FIJI, a cross-layer anti-jamming system that detects such intelligent jammers and mitigates their impact on network performance. FIJI looks for anomalies in the AP load distribution to efficiently perform jammer detection. It then makes decisions with regards to optimally shaping the traffic such that: (a) the clients that are not explicitly jammed are shielded from experiencing starvation and, (b) the jammed clients receive the maximum possible throughput under the given conditions. We implement FIJI in real hardware; we evaluate its efficacy through experiments on two wireless testbeds, under different traffic scenarios, network densities and jammer locations. We perform experiments both indoors and outdoors, and we consider both WLAN and mesh deployments. Our measurements suggest that FIJI detects such jammers in real-time and alleviates their impact by allocating the available bandwidth in a fair and efficient way.
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The CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) threshold specifies the RSSI value below which, receptions are ignored with regards to carrier sensing .
The rate scaling overhead accounts for the higher delays incurred due to transient lower rates that the rate adaptation algorithm invokes.
For larger packet sizes, objective 1 cannot be satisfied; hence we do not need to consider such a case.
We consider TCP-Reno in this set of experiments.
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We thank Intel Research for providing the wireless driver. This work was done partially with support from the US Army Research Office under the Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI) grants W911NF-07-1-0318 and the NSF NeTS:WN / Cyber trust grant 0721941.
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Broustis, I., Pelechrinis, K., Syrivelis, D. et al. A software framework for alleviating the effects of MAC-aware jamming attacks in wireless access networks. Wireless Netw 17, 1543–1560 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-011-0363-6
- IEEE 802.11 Wireless Medium Access Control