Routing in the frequency domain
- 73 Downloads
The design of single transceiver based multi-channel multi-hop wireless mesh networks focuses on the trade-off between rapid neighbor synchronization and maximizing the usage of all available channels. Existing designs are confined to the MAC layer and scale poorly as the network grows in coverage and density. We recently proposed Dominion as a cross-layer architecture that includes both medium access control and routing. Dominion eliminates the need for neighbor synchronization at the MAC layer and pushes the intelligence up the network stack. At the MAC layer, a node switches channels according to a deterministic schedule which guarantees that a node converges with each of its neighbors periodically. At the network layer, the channel-hopping aware routing substrate routes traffic along the frequency domain, i.e., packets along a multi-hop route generally traverse via multiple channels. In this paper, we present the complete design, analysis and evaluation of Dominion and make four new contributions. Firstly, we extend Dominion to support goal-oriented routing: source nodes can locally choose to maximize throughput or minimize end-to-end latency without requiring any changes in the network. Secondly, we describe a technique that eliminates intra-flow interference. In absence of extrinsic interference, Dominion now allows network flows to maintain constant throughput and deterministic end-to-end latencies irrespective of distance. Thirdly, via theoretical modeling and analysis, we provide expected throughput and end-to-end latencies for network flows. Finally, via extensive QualNet simulations we show that Dominion achieves 1064% higher throughput than IEEE 802.11 while being 299% fairer.
KeywordsMulti-channel networks Cross-layer design Wireless mesh networks Multi-path routing
We are thankful to Ranveer Chandra for providing the code for the original SSCH implementation. This research was supported in part by NSF CAREER grant CNS-0448246, and in part by NSF ITR grant CMS-0427089.
- 1.Bahl, P., Chandra, R., & Dunagan, J. (2004). SSCH: Slotted seeded channel hopping for capacity improvement in IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc wireless networks. In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom (pp. 216–230), Philadelphia, PA, USA, September 2004.Google Scholar
- 2.Biswas, S., & Morris, R. (2005). ExOR: Opportunistic routing in multi-hop wireless networks. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (pp. 133–144), Philadelphia, PA, USA, August 2005.Google Scholar
- 3.Broch, J., Maltz, D. A., Johnson, D. B., Hu, Y.-C., & Jetcheva, J. (1998). A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols. In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom (pp. 85–97), Dallas, TX, USA, October 1998.Google Scholar
- 4.Camp, J. D., Knightly, E. W., & Reed, W. S. (2005). Developing and deploying multihop wireless networks for low-income communities. In Proceedings of Digital Communities, Napoli, Italy, June 2005.Google Scholar
- 5.Cetinkaya, C., & Knightly E. (2004). Opportunistic traffic scheduling over multiple network paths. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 1928–1937), Hong Kong, March 2004.Google Scholar
- 6.Champaign-Urbana wireless network. Website: http://www.cuwireless.net/.
- 7.Cormen, T. H., Leiserson, C. E., Rivest, R. L., & Stein, C. (2001). Single-source shortest paths, chapter 24 (2nd ed., pp. 580–619). MIT Press.Google Scholar
- 8.De Couto, D. S. J., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., & Morris, R. (2003). A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom (pp. 134–146), San Diego, CA, USA, September 2003.Google Scholar
- 9.Draves, R., Padhye, J., & Zill, B. (2004). Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless mesh networks. In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom (pp. 114–128), Philadelphia, PA, USA, September 2004.Google Scholar
- 10.Elson, J., Girod, L., Estrin, D. (2002). Fine-grained network time synchronization using reference broadcasts. In Proceedings of USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI) (pp. 147–163), Boston, MA, USA, December 2002.Google Scholar
- 11.Herzel, F., Fischer, G., & Gustat, H. (2003). An integrated CMOS RF synthesizer for 802.11a wireless LAN. IEEE Journal on Solid-State Circuits, 38(10), 1767–1770.Google Scholar
- 12.Hsieh, H.-Y., & R. Sivakumar. (2002). pTCP: An end-to-end transport layer protocol for striped connections. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP) (pp. 24–33), Paris, France, November 2002.Google Scholar
- 13.Jain, N., Das, S. R., & Nasipuri, A. (2001). A multichannel CSMA MAC protocol with receiver-based channel selection for multihop wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICNP) (pp. 432–439), Scottsdale, AZ, USA.Google Scholar
- 14.Jain, R. K., Chiu, D.-M. W., & Hawe, W. R. (1984). A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems. Technical Report TR-301. Digital Equipment Corporation.Google Scholar
- 15.Johnson, D. B., Maltz, D. A., & Broch, J. (2001). DSR: The dynamic source routing protocol for multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, chapter 5 (pp. 139–172). Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- 16.Kyasanur, P. & Vaidya, N. H. (2005). Routing and interface assignment in multi-channel multi-interface wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (pp. 2051–2056), New Orleans, LA, USA.Google Scholar
- 17.Magalhaes, L., & Kravets, R. (2001). Transport level mechanisms for bandwidth aggregation on mobile hosts. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP) (pp. 165–171), Riverside, CA, USA, November 2001.Google Scholar
- 18.Maheshwari, R., Gupta, H., & Das S. R. (2006). Multichannel MAC protocols for wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON) (pp. 393–401), Reston, Virginia, USA, September 2006.Google Scholar
- 19.Mishra, A., Banerjee, S., & Arbaugh, W. (2005). Weighted coloring based channel assignment for wlans. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 9(3), 19–31.Google Scholar
- 20.MIT Roofnet. Website: http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/roofnet/.
- 21.Nasipuri, A., & Das, S. R. (2000). Multichannel CSMA with signal power-based channel selection for multihop wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) (pp. 211–218), Boston, MA, USA, September 2000.Google Scholar
- 22.Nasipuri, A., Zhuang, J., & Das, S. R. (1999). A multichannel CSMA MAC protocol for multihop wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (pp. 1402–1406), New Orleans, LA, USA, September 1999.Google Scholar
- 23.Patel, J. A., Luo, H., & Gupta, I. (2007). A cross-layer architecture to exploit multi-channel diversity with a single transceiver. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Minisymposium), Anchorage, AK, USA, May 2007.Google Scholar
- 24.Qualnet user manual v3.9. Website: http://www.qualnet.com/.
- 25.Raniwala, A., & Chiueh, T. (2005). Architecture and algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-based multi-channel wireless mesh network. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 2223–2234), Miami, FL, USA, March 2005.Google Scholar
- 26.So, J., & Vaidya, N. H. (2004). Multi-channel MAC for ad hoc networks: Handling multi-channel hidden terminals using a single transceiver. In Proceedings of ACM MobiHoc (pp. 222–233), Tokyo, Japan, May 2004.Google Scholar
- 27.So, J., & Vaidya, N. H. (2004). A routing protocol for utilizing multiple channels in multi-hop wireless networks with a single transceiver. Technical report. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
- 28.Wistron NeWeb DCMA-82 mini-PCI adapter. Website: http://www.wneweb.com/wireless/wireless_mini-pci.htm.
- 29.Wu, S.-L., Lin, C.-Y., Tseng, Y.-C., & Sheu, J.-P. (2000). A new multi-channel MAC protocol with on-demand channel assignment for multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks (ISPAN) (pp. 232–237). Dallas, TX, USA, December 2000.Google Scholar