Wireless Networks

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 637–650 | Cite as

A Network Layer Approach to Enable TCP over Multiple Interfaces

  • Kameswari Chebrolu
  • Bhaskaran Raman
  • Ramesh R. Rao
Article

Abstract

The mobile Internet is set to become ubiquitous with the deployment of various wireless technologies. When heterogeneous wireless networks overlap in coverage, a mobile terminal can potentially use multiple wireless interfaces simultaneously. In this paper, we motivate the advantages of simultaneous use of multiple interfaces and present a network layer architecture that supports diverse multi-access services. Our main focus is on one such service provided by the architecture: Bandwidth Aggregation (BAG), specifically for TCP applications.

While aggregating bandwidth across multiple interfaces can improve raw throughput, it introduces challenges in the form of packet reordering for TCP applications. When packets are reordered, TCP misinterprets the duplicate ACKS received as indicative of packet loss and invokes congestion control. This can significantly lower TCP throughput and counter any gains that can be had through bandwidth aggregation. To improve overall performance of TCP, we take a two-pronged approach: (1) We propose a scheduling algorithm that partitions traffic onto the different paths (corresponding to each interface) such that reordering is minimized. The algorithm estimates available bandwidth and thereby minimizes reordering by sending packet pairs on the path that introduces the least amount of delay. (2) A buffer management policy is introduced at the client to hide any residual reordering from TCP. We show through simulations that our network-layer approach can achieve good bandwidth aggregation under a variety of network conditions.

Keywords

network architecture TCP scheduling algorithm simulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Network Simulator. ns2. Available: http://www.isi.edu/snam/s.
  2. [2]
    Web Traffic Generator. Available: http://www.isi.edu/snam/s/s-contributed.html.
  3. [3]
    Inverse multiplexing for ATM IMA specification, version 1.1, ATM forum doc. AF-PHY-0086.001, 1999.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Acharya and J. Saltz, A study of internet round-trip delay, Technical Report CS-TR 3736, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. Adiseshu, G. Parulkar and G. Varghese, A reliable and scalable striping protocol. ACM Computer Communication Review 26(4) (1996) 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. Aweya, M. Ouellette and D. Y. Montuno, A self-regulating TCP acknowledgment ACK pacing scheme, International Journal of Network Management 12(3) (2002) 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    H. Balakrishnan, V.Padmanabhan and R. Katz, The effects of asymmetry on TCP performance, Mobile Networks and Applications 4(3) (1999) 219–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabhan, S.Sheshan and R. Katz, A comparision of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links, IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 5(6) (1997) 756–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    E. Blanton and M. Allman, On making tcp more robust to packet reordering, Computer Communication Review 32(1) (2002) 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    D. Brudnicki, Third Generation Wireless Technology. Available: http://www.seasim.org/rchive/sim102001.pdf.
  11. [11]
    A. Campbell, J. Gomez, S. Kim, Z. Turanyi, C-Y Wan, and A. Valko, Comparison of IP micromobility protocols. IEEE Wireless Communications, 9(1):72–82, Feb 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    K. Chebrolu, Multi-access services in heterogeneous wireless networks, PhD thesis, ECE Department, U.C. San Diego, May 2004.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    bag-video K. Chebrolu and R.R. Rao, Bandwidth aggregation for real-time applications in heterogeneous wireless networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, accepted.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    K. Chebrolu and R.R. Rao, Communication using multiple wireless interfaces, in: Proc. IEEE WCNC′02 (Orlando, March 2002).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    A. Demers, S. Keshav and S. Shenker, Analysis and simulation of a fair queuing algorithm, in: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM′89 (Austin, Texas, September 1989) pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. Duncanson, Inverse multiplexing, IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(4) (1994) 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    K. Fall and S. Floyd, Simulation-based comparisons of Tahoe, Reno and SACK TCP, Computer Communication Review 26(3) (1996) 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    B. Girod, M. Kalman, Y.J. Liang and R. Zhang, Advances in channel-adaptive video streaming, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 2(6) (2002) 549–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. Hsieh and R. Sivakumar, A transport layer approach for achieving aggregate bandwidths on multi-homed mobile hosts, in: Proc. ACM MOBICOM′02 (Atlanta, Sep. 2002).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    V. Jacobson, Modified TCP Congestion Avoidance Algorithm, end2end-interest mailing list (April 1990). Available: ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/mail/anj.90apr30.txt.
  21. [21]
    S. Keshav, A control-theoretic approach to flow control, Computer Communication Review 21(4) (1991) 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    L. Kleinrock, (ed.), Queueing Theory (Wiley, New York, 1975).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    S. Lu, V. Bharghavan and R. Srikant, Fair scheduling in wireless packet networks, IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 7(4) (1999) 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    L. Magalhaes and R. Kravets, Transport level mechanisms for bandwidth aggregation on mobile hosts, in: Proc. IEEE ICNP′01 (Riverside, Nov 2001).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    A. Mahler and C. Steinfield, The Evolving Hot-Spot Market for Broadband Access, in ITU Telecom World 2003 Forum panel on Technologies for Broadband (Oct 2003).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    S. Ostermann, M. Allman and H. Kruse, An application-level solution to TCP’s satellite inefficiencies, in: Proc. WOSBIS′96 (Rye, Nov 1996).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    C.E. Perkins, Mobile IP, IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(5) (1997) 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    D.S. Phatak and T. Goff, A novel mechanism for data streaming across multiple IP links for improving throughput and reliability in mobile environments, in: Proc. IEEE INFOCOM′02 (New York, June 2002) pp. 773–781.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    B. Raman, An Architecture for Performance and Availability Constrained Service Composition in the Wide-Area Internet, PhD thesis, University of California at Berkeley (Dec. 2002).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    H. Sivakumar, S. Bailey and R.L. Grossman, Psockets: The case for application-level network striping for data intensive applications using high Speed wide area networks, in: Proc. IEEE Supercomputing′00 (Dallas, Nov. 2000).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    K. Sklower, B. Lloyd, G. McGregor, D. Carr and T. Coradetti, The PPP multilink protocol MP, in: RFC 1990 (Aug. 1996).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    M. Stemm and R. Katz, Vertical handoffs in wireless overlay networks, Mobile Networks and Applications 3(4) (1998) 335–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    R. Stewart et al, Stream control transmission protocol, in: RFC 2960 (October 2000).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd and L. Peterson, Improving TCP’s performance under reordering with DSACK, Technical Report TR-02-006, International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley (July 2002).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kameswari Chebrolu
    • 1
  • Bhaskaran Raman
    • 2
  • Ramesh R. Rao
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations