An update on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antigens and their role in the diagnosis of Johne’s disease

  • Shanmugasundaram Karuppusamy
  • Gordon M. Kirby
  • Lucy Mutharia
  • Bupendra Nath TripathiEmail author


Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is responsible for Johne’s disease (JD) or paratuberculosis. Diagnosis of MAP infection by measuring host cell-mediated and humoral immune responses has been a major focus in MAP research. For this purpose, several MAP antigens such as secreted protein, cell envelope protein, cell-mediated immune and lipoprotein antigens have been identified and tested to measure their diagnostic utility with varying degree of success. Identifying the optimal antigen or antigen combinations for diagnosis of infected animals is hindered by the complex nature of the disease, prolonged subclinical infection, the differential expression of antigens and scarcity of well characterized MAP-specific epitopes making selection of a single MAP antigen very difficult. Thus, multiplexing of antigens with larger scale and longitudinal studies may lead to development of cost-effective next generation serodiagnostics. This mini review focuses on the role of different MAP antigens in the diagnosis of JD.


Johne’s disease Cell-mediated Secreted antigens Cell envelope antigens 



The authors would like to thank, Director NRCE, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India and Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Canada, for providing necessary help to complete this review work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors do not have any conflicts of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanmugasundaram Karuppusamy
    • 1
  • Gordon M. Kirby
    • 2
  • Lucy Mutharia
    • 3
  • Bupendra Nath Tripathi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures-National Research Centre On EquinesHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary CollegeUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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