Advertisement

Biological CO2 mitigation by microalgae: technological trends, future prospects and challenges

  • Michele Greque de Morais
  • Etiele Greque de Morais
  • Jessica Hartwig Duarte
  • Kricelle Mosquera Deamici
  • B. Greg Mitchell
  • Jorge Alberto Vieira CostaEmail author
Review
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a promising technology due to the efficiency of these microorganisms in converting this gas into organic compounds through its use as a nutrient in the culture medium. Over the years, several research centers have developed studies on this subject, which have focused on mainly the development of bioreactors, the growth conditions that increase the efficiency of the process and the production of biomass with applicability in several areas. The biological mitigation of CO2 by microalgae has many advantages, including reductions in the concentration of an industrially sourced greenhouse gas and the energy or food obtained from the produced photosynthetic biomass. This versatility allows for the cultivation of economically useful biomass while reducing the environmental impacts of industrial facilities. In this context, this mini-review aims to discuss new technologies and strategies along with the main challenges and future prospects in the field and the ecological and economic impacts of CO2 biofixation by microalgae.

Keywords

Carbon dioxide Microalgae Biofixation Greenhouse gas impact 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), MCTIC (Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications) and the Program to Support the Publication of Academic Production/ PROPESP/FURG/2018 for providing financial support.

References

  1. Abinandan S, Shanthakumar S (2015) Challenges and opportunities in application of microalgae (Chlorophyta) for wastewater treatment: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52:123–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alava D, Mello PC, Wagener K (1997) The relevance of the CO2 partial pressure of sodium bicarbonate solutions for the mass cultivation of the microalga Spirulina. J Braz Chem Soc 8:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Algaenergy (2018) Technology & Facilities. https://www.algaenergy.es. Accessed 20 Aug 2018
  4. Basu S, Roy AS, Mohanty K, Ghoshal AK (2014) CO2biofixation and carbonic anhydrase activity in Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 cultivated in large scale open system. Bioresour Technol 164:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker EW (2007) Micro–algae as a source of protein. Biotechnol Adv 25:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bharathiraja B, Chakravarthy M, Ranjith Kumar R, Yogendran D, Yuvaraj D, Jayamuthunagai J, Praveen Kumar R, Palani S (2015) Aquatic biomass (algae) as a future feed stock for bio-refineries: a review on cultivation, processing and products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 47:634–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BP (2018) Statistical review of world energy. https://www.bp.com Accessed 25 Aug 2018
  8. Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from microalgae—A review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardias BB, Morais MG, Costa JAV (2018) CO2 conversion by the integration of biological and chemical methods: Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultivation with diethanolamine and potassium carbonate addition. Bioresour Technol 267:77–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.07.031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chae SR, Hwang EJ, Shin HS (2006) Single cell protein production of Euglena gracilis and carbon dioxide fixation in an innovative photo-bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 97:322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chai X, Zhao X (2012) Enhanced removal of carbon dioxide and alleviation of dissolved oxygen accumulation in photobioreactor with bubble tank. Bioresour Technol 116:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng J, Huang Y, Feng J, Sun J, Zhou JH, Cen KF (2013) Improving CO2 fixation efficiency by optimizing Chlorella PY-ZU1 culture conditions in sequential bioreactors. Bioresour Technol 144:321–327.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.06.122 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chisti Y (2008) Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol. Trends Biotechnol 26:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa JAV, Morais MG (2014) An open pond system for microalgal cultivation. In: Pandey A, Lee DJ, Chisti Y, Soccol CR (eds) Biofuels from algae, San Diego, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  15. Deamici KM, Santos LO, Costa JAV (2019) Use of static magnetic fields to increase CO2 biofixation by the microalga Chlorella fusca. Bioresour Technol 276:103–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.12.080 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dewers T, Eichhubl P, Ganis B, Gomez S, Heath J, Jammoul M, Kobos P, Liu R, Major J, Matteo E, Newell P, Rinehart A, Sobolik S, Stormont J, Taha MR, Wheeler M, White D (2018) Heterogeneity, pore pressure, and injectate chemistry: control measures for geologic carbon storage. Int J Greenh Gas Con 68:203–215.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2017.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doucha J, Livansk Y K, (2006) Productivity, CO2/O2 exchange and hydraulics in outdoor open high density microalgal (Chlorella sp.) photobioreactors operated in a Middle and Southern European climate. J Appl Phycol 18:811–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duarte JH, Fanka LS, Costa JAV (2016) Utilization of simulated flue gas containing CO2, SO2, NO and ash for Chlorella fusca cultivation. Bioresour Technol 214:159–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.078 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Duarte JH, Morais EG, Radmann ER, Costa JAV (2017) Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp. Bioresour Technol 234:472–475.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.066 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Freitas BCB, Morais MG, Costa JAV (2017) Chlorella minutissima cultivation with CO2 and pentoses: effects on kinetic and nutritional parameters. Bioresour Technol 244:338–344.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.07.125 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gendy TS, El-Temtamy SA (2013) Commercialization potential aspects of microalgae for biofuel production: an overview. Egypt J Petroleum 22:43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2012.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gouveia L, Marques AE, Sousa JM, Moura P, Bandara NM (2010) Microalgae-sourceof natural bioactivemolecules as functionalingredients. Food Sci Technol Bull 7:21–37Google Scholar
  23. Green Plains (2018) https://www.gpreinc.com/. Accesssed 20 Aug 2018
  24. Ho SH, Chen CY, Lee DJ, Chang JS (2011) Perspectives on microalgal CO2-emission mitigation systems—A review. Biotechnol Adv 29:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hodaifa G, Martinez ME, Sanchez S (2009) Daily doses of light in relation to the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in diluted three-phase olive mill wastewater. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:1550–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. IPCC: Field CB., Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (2014) Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1132 pp. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2/. Accessed 25 Aug 2018
  27. Knuckey RM, Brown MR, Robert R, Frampton DMF (2006) Production of microalgal concentrates by flocculation and their assessment as aquaculture feeds. Aquacult Eng 35(300):313Google Scholar
  28. Kuo C, Lin T, Yang Y, Zhang W, Lai J, Wu H, Chang J, Lin C (2017) Ability of an alkali-tolerant mutant strain of the microalga Chlorella sp. AT1 to capture carbon dioxide for increasing carbon dioxide utilization efficiency. Bioresour Technol 244:243–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.07.096 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kvamsdal HM, Haugen G, Svendsen HF (2011) Flue-gas cooling in postcombustion capture plants. ChemEng Res Des 89:1544–1552.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2011.02.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kyriakopoulou K, Papadaki S, Krokida M (2015) Life cycle analysis of βcarotene extraction techniques. J Food Eng 167:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lam MK, Lee KT, Mohamed AR (2012) Current status and challenges on microalgae-based carbon capture. Int J Greenh Gas Control 10:456–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li D, Wang L, Zhao Q, Wei W, Sun Y (2015) Improving high carbon dioxide tolerance and carbon dioxide fixation capability of Chlorella sp. by adaptive laboratory evolution. Bioresour Technol 185:269–275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lucas BF, Morais MG, Santos TD, Costa JAV (2018) Spirulina for snack enrichment: nutritional, physical and sensory evaluations. LWT 90:270–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.12.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Manirafasha E, Ndikubwimana T, Zeng X, Lu Y, Jiang K (2016) Phycobiliprotein: potential microalgae derived pharmaceutical and biological reagent. BiochemEng J 109:282–296.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2016.01.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Milano J, Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Chong WT, Lam MK, Loh PK, Vellavan V (2016) Microalgae biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel for power generation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 58:180–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller SR, Castenholz RW (2000) Evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4222–4229.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.10.4222-4229.2000 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Moraes L, Rosa GM, Cardias BB, Santos LO, Costa JAV (2016) Microalgal biotechnology for greenhouse gas control: carbon dioxide fixation by Spirulina sp. at different diffusers. Ecol Eng 91:426–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morais MG, Costa JAV (2007) Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in a three-stage serial tubular photobioreactor. J Biotechnol 129:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moroney JV, Ynalvez RA (2007) Proposed carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Eukaryot Cell 6:1251–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naik N, Goud VV, Rout PK, Dalai AK (2010) Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:578–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Narayanan GS, Kumar G, Seepana S, Elankovan R, Arumugan S, Premalatha M (2018) Isolation, identification and outdoor cultivation of thermophilic freshwater microalgae Coelastrella sp. F169 in bubble column reactor for the application of biofuel production. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 14:357–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peng J, Dan L, Wang YP, Tang X, Yang X, Yang X, Yang F, Lu X, Pak B (2018) How biological nitrogen fixation and climate change contribute to future terrestrial carbon sequestration from the global to biome scale. J Clean Prod 25:256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Picardo MC, Medeiros JL, Araújo OQ, Chaloub RM (2013) Effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrients supply intermittency on batch cultures osIsochysisgalbana. Bioresour Technol 143:242–250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.113 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Radmann EM, Camerini FV, Santos TD, Costa JAV (2011) Isolation and application of SOX and NOX resistant microalgae in biofixation of CO2 from thermoelectricity plants. Bioresour Technol 52:3132–3136Google Scholar
  45. Rosa GM, Morais MG, Costa JAV (2018) Green alga cultivation with monoethanolamine: evaluation of CO2 fixation and macromolecule production. Bioresour Technol 261:206–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ryu HJ, Oh KK, Kim YS (2009) Optimization of the influential factors for the improvement of CO2 utilization efficiency and CO2 mass transfer rate. J IndEngChem 15:471–475Google Scholar
  47. Santos TD, Freitas BCB, Moreira JB, Zanfonato K, Costa JAV (2016) Development of powdered food with the addition of Spirulina for food supplementation of the elderly population. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 37:216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Skjanes K, Lindblad P, Muller J (2007) BiOCO2 - a multidisciplinary, biological approach using solar energy to capture CO2 while producing H2 and high value products. Biomol Eng 24:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spalding MH (2008) Microalgal carbon-dioxide-concentrating mechanisms: Chlamydomonas inorganic carbon transporters. J Exp Bot 59:1463–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stewart C, Hessami MA (2005) A study of methods of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration—The sustainability of a photosynthetic bioreactor approach. Energy Convers Manage 46:403–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Talbot P, Lencki RW, La Nouie J (1990) Carbon dioxide absorption characterization of a bioreactor for biomass production of Phormidiumbohneri: comparative study of three types of diffuser. J Appl Phycol 2:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tang D, Han W, Li P, Miao X, Zhong J (2011) CO2biofixation and fatty acid composition of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosain response to different CO2 levels. Bioresour Technol 102:3071–3076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thakur IS, Kumar M, Varjani SJ, Wu Y, Gnansounou E, Ravindran S (2018) Sequestration and utilization of carbon dioxide by chemical and biological methods for biofuels and biomaterials by chemoautotrophs: opportunities and challenges. Bioresour Technol 256:478–490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.02.039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Toledo-Cervantes A, Morales M, Novelo E, Revah S (2013) Carbon dioxide fixation and lipid storage by Scenedesmusobtusiusculus. Bioresour Technol 130:652–658.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.081 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Trimborn S, Lundholm N, Thoms S, Richter KU, Krock B, Hansen PJ, Rost B (2008) Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Physiol Plant 133:92–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Trimborn S, Wolf-Gladrow D, Richter K-U, Ros B (2009) The effect of pCO2 on carbon acquisition and intracellular assimilation in four marine diatoms. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 376:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ugwu CU, Aoyagi H, Uchiyama H (2008) Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae. Bioresour Technol 99:4021–4028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vaz BS, Costa JAV, Morais MG (2019) Innovative nanofiber technology to improve carbon dioxide biofixation in microalgae cultivation. Bioresour Technol 273:592–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang B, Li YQ, Wu N, Lan CQ (2008) CO2 bio-mitigation using microalgae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:707–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yen H, Hu IC, Chen CY, Ho SH, Lee DJ, Chang JS (2013) Microalgae-based biorefinery—From biofuels to natural products. Bioresour Technol 135:166–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.099 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Yen HW, Hu IC, Chen CY, Chang JS (2014) Design of photobioreactors for algal cultivation. In: Pandey A, Lee DJ, Chisti Y, Soccol CR Biofuels from algae, San Diego, Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yoo C, Jun SY, Lee JY, Ahn CY, Oh HM (2010) Selection of microalgae for lipid production under high levels carbon dioxide. Bioresour Technol 101:571–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zeng XH, Danquah MK, Chen XD, Lu YH (2011) Microalgae bioengineering: from CO2 fixation to biofuel production. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:3252–3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhao B, Su Y (2014) Process effect of microalgal-carbon dioxide fixation and biomass production: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 31:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zheng H, Liu M, Lu Q, Wua X, Ma Y, Cheng Y, Addy M, Liu Y, Ruana R (2018) Balancing carbon/nitrogen ratio to improve nutrients removal and algal biomass production in piggery and brewery wastewaters. Biresour Technol 249:479–486.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.10.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhou X, Yuan S, Chen R, Ochieng RM (2015) Sustainable production of energy from microalgae: review of culturing systems, economics, and modelling. J Renew Sustain Energy 7:012701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhu LD, Hiltunen E, Antila E, Zhong JJ, Yuan ZH, Wang ZM (2014) Microalgal biofuels: flexible bioenergies for sustainable development. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 30:1035–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Greque de Morais
    • 1
  • Etiele Greque de Morais
    • 2
  • Jessica Hartwig Duarte
    • 2
  • Kricelle Mosquera Deamici
    • 2
  • B. Greg Mitchell
    • 3
  • Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Chemistry and Food EngineeringFederal University of Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food EngineeringFederal University of Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
  3. 3.Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations