Environmental safety and biosafety in construction biotechnology

  • Volodymyr IvanovEmail author
  • Viktor Stabnikov
  • Olena Stabnikova
  • Satoru Kawasaki


The topics of Construction Biotechnology are the development of construction biomaterials and construction biotechnologies for soil biocementation, biogrouting, biodesaturation, bioaggregation and biocoating. There are known different biochemical types of these biotechnologies. The most popular construction biotechnology is based on precipitation of calcium carbonate initiated by enzymatic hydrolysis of urea which follows with release of ammonia and ammonium to environment. This review focuses on the hazards and remedies for construction biotechnologies and on the novel environmentally friendly biotechnologies based on precipitation of hydroxyapatite, decay of calcium bicarbonate, and aerobic oxidation of calcium salts of organic acids. The use of enzymes or not living bacteria are the best options to ensure biosafety of construction biotechnologies. Only environmentally safe construction biotechnologies should be used for such environmental and geotechnical engineering works as control of the seepage in dams, channels, landfills or tunnels, sealing of the channels and the ponds, prevention of soil erosion and soil dust emission, mitigation of soil liquefaction, and immobilization of soil pollutants.


Construction biotechnology Environmental safety Biosafety Biogrout Biocement Soil stabilization Urease-producing bacteria Calcium phosphate Calcium bicarbonate 



This analysis of environmental safety and biosafety of bioclogging and biocementation processes was partially supported by the Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, and the Advanced Research Lab and the Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, National University of Food Technologies, Kyiv, Ukraine.


  1. Akiyama M, Kawasaki S (2012) Novel grout material using calcium phosphate compounds: in vitro evaluation of crystal precipitation and strength reinforcement. Eng Geol 125:119–128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Thawadi SM (2013) Consolidation of sand particles by aggregates of calcite nanoparticles synthesized by ureolytic bacteria under non-sterile conditions. J Chem Sci Technol 2:141–146Google Scholar
  3. Al-Thawadi S, Cord-Ruwisch R (2012) Calcium carbonate crystals formation by ureolytic bacterial isolated from Australian soil and sludge. J Adv Sci Engrg Res 2:12–26Google Scholar
  4. Amarakoon GGNN, Koreeda T, Kawasaki S (2014) Improvement in the unconfined compressive strength of sand test pieces cemented with calcium phosphate compound by addition of calcium carbonate powders. Mater Trans 55:1391–1399. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anker HT, Baaner L, Backes C, Keessen A, Möckel S (2017) Comparison of ammonia regulation in Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark—legal framework.
  6. Army US, Force A, Air Force US (2005) Dust control for roads, airfields, and adjacent areas. University Press of the Pacific, TotnesGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachmeier KL, Williams AE, Warmington JR, Bang SS (2002) Urease activity in microbiologically-induced calcite precipitation. J Biotechnol 93:171–181. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball AS (2015) The intentional release of micro-organisms into the environment: challenges to commercial use. In: Biosafety and the environmental uses of micro-organisms: conference proceedings, OECD Publishing, Paris, pp 115–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Banerjee R, Halder A, Natta A (2016) Psychrophilic microorganisms: habitats and exploitation potentials. European J Biotechnol Biosci 4:16–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bang SS, Galinat JK, Ramakrishnan V (2001) Calcite precipitation induced by polyurethane-immobilized Bacillus pasteurii. Enzyme Microbial Technol 28:404–409. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumgardner DJ (2012) Soil-related bacterial and fungal infections. J Am Board Fam Med 25:734–744. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burbank MB, Weaver TJ, Green TL, Williams BC, Crawford RL (2011) Precipitation of calcite by indigenous microorganisms to strengthen liquefiable soil. Geomicrobiol J 28:301–312. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burbank MB, Weaver TJ, Williams BC, Crawford RL (2012) Urease activity of ureolytic bacteria isolated from six soils in which calcite was precipitated by indigenous bacteria. Geomicrobiol J 29:389–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carmona JPSF, Oliveira PJV, Lemos LJL, Pedro AMG (2017) Improvement of a sandy soil by enzymatic calcium carbonate precipitation. Proc Inst Civ Eng CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheng L, Cord-Ruwisch R (2013) Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 40:1095–1104. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Christians S, Jose J, Schafer U, Kaltwasser H (1991) Purification and subunit determination of the nickel-dependent urease. FEMS Microbiol Lett 80:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dapurkar D, Telang M (2017) A patent landscape on application of microorganisms in construction industry. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33:138. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Daskalakis MI, Rigas F, Bakolas A, Magoulas A, Kotoulas G, Katsikis I, Karageorgis AP, Mavridou A (2015) Vaterite bio-precipitation induced by Bacillus pumilus isolated from a solutional cave in Paiania, Athens, Greece. Int Biodeter Biodegr 99:73–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Muynck W, Cox K, Verstraete W, De Belie N (2008) Bacterial carbonate precipitation as an alternative surface treatment for concrete. Constr Build Mater 22:875–885. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeJong J, Fritzges M, Nusstein K (2006) Microbially induced cementation to control sand response to undrained shear. J Geotechn Geoenviron Engrg 132:1381–1392Google Scholar
  21. DeJong JT, Soga K, Kavazanjian E et al (2013) Biogeochemical processes and geotechnical applications: progress, opportunities and challenges. Geotechnique 63:287–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dhami NK, Reddy MS, Mukherjee A (2014) Application of calcifying bacteria for remediation of stones and cultural heritages. Front Microb 5:304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dilrukshi RAN, Watanabe J, Kawasaki S (2016) Strengthening of sand cemented with calcium phosphate compounds using plant-derived urease. Int J Geomate 11:2461–2467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dilrukshi RAN, Nakashima K, Kawasaki S (2018) Soil improvement using plant-derived urease-induced calcium carbonate precipitation. Soils Found 58:894–910. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dosier GK (2014) Methods for making construction material using enzyme producing bacteria. US Patent 8,728,365Google Scholar
  26. Du G, Sun W, Zhang D, Peng E (2018) Desaturation for liquefaction mitigation using biogas produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri. J Test Eval 46:20170435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dworatzek S, Gomez M, Martinez B, deVlaming AL, Dejong J, Hunt C, Major D (2014) Field-scale bio-cementation tests to improve sands. Proc ICE 168:206–216Google Scholar
  28. Elmanama AA, Alhour MT (2013) Isolation, characterization and application of calcite producing bacteria from urea rich soils. J Adv Sci Engrg 3:388–399Google Scholar
  29. Ghezelbash GR, Haddadi M (2018) Production of nanocalcite crystal by a urease producing halophilic strain of Staphylococcus saprophyticus and analysis of its properties by XRD and SEM. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 34:174. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gomez MG, Anderson CM, Graddy CMR, DeJong JT, Nelson DC, Ginn TR (2016) Large-scale comparison of bioaugmentation and biostimulation approaches for biocementation of sands. J Geotechn Geoenviron Engrg 143:04016124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gomez MG, Graddy CMR, DeJong JT, Nelson DC, Tsesarsky M (2017) Stimulation of native microorganisms for biocementation in samples recovered from field-scale treatment depths. J Geotech Geoeng 144:04017098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hall CA, van Paassen LA, Rittmann BE, Kavazanjian EJr, DeJong JT, Wilson DW (2018) Predicting desaturation by biogenic gas formation via denitrification during centrifugal loadingGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamdan N, Kavazanjian JrE (2016) Enzyme-induced carbonate mineral precipitation for fugitive dust control. Géotechnique 66:546–555. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamdan N, Kavazanjian E, Rittmann BE, Karatas I (2017) Carbonate mineral precipitation for soil improvement through microbial denitrification. Geomicrobiol J 34:139–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hammes F, Boon N, de Villiers J, Verstraete W, Siciliano SD (2003) Strain-specific ureolytic microbial calcium carbonate precipitation. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4901–4909. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Han J, Lian B, Ling H (2013) Induction of calcium carbonate by Bacillus cereus. Geomicrobiol J 30:682–689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haouzi FZ, Courcelles B (2018) Major applications of MICP sand treatment at multi-scale levels: A review. In: Conf. Proceed. GeoEdmonton 2018: the 71st Canadian Geotechnical Conference and the 13th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference. Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  38. He J, Chu J, Ivanov V (2013) Mitigation of liquefaction of saturated sand using biogas. Géotechnique 63:267–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ivanov V (2015) Environmental Microbiology for Engineers, Second edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, 413 pGoogle Scholar
  40. Ivanov V, Chu J (2008) Applications of microorganisms to geotechnical engineering for bioclogging and biocementation of soil in situ. Rev Environ Sci Bio 7:139–153Google Scholar
  41. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017a) Calcite/aragonite-biocoated artificial coral reefs for marine parks. AIMS Environ Sci 4:586–595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017b) Basics of microbiology for civil and environmental engineers. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017c) Basics of biotechnology for civil and environmental engineers. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017d) Biogeochemical bases of construction bioprocesses. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 76–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017e) Biotechnological improvement of construction ground and construction materials. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017f) Biocementation and biocements. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 109–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017g) Bioclogging and biogrouts. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, Microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 139–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017h) Advances and future developments of construction biotechnology. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017i) Bioremediation and biodesaturation of soil. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017j) Optimization and design of construction biotechnology processes. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 235–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (2017k) Soil surface biotreatment. In: Ivanov V, Stabnikov V (eds) Construction biotechnology: biogeochemistry, microbiology and biotechnology of construction materials and processes, Springer, Singapore, pp 179–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ivanov V, Stabnikov V, Hung YT (2012) Screening and selection of microorganisms for the environmental biotechnology process. In: Hung YT, Wang LK, Shammas NK (eds) Handbook of environment and waste management. Air and water pollution control. World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Singapore, pp 1137–1149Google Scholar
  53. Ivanov V, Chu J, Stabnikov V (2015) Basics of Construction Microbial Biotechnology. In: Pacheco-Torgal F, Labrincha JA, Diamanti MV, Yu CP, Lee HK (eds) Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering, Springer, Berlin, pp 21–56Google Scholar
  54. Jin M, Rosario W, Watler E, Calhoun DH (2004) Development of a large-scale HPLC-based purification for the urease from Staphylococcus leei and determination of subunit structure. Protein Expr Purif 34:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jonkers HM, Thijssen A, Muyzer G, Copuroglu O, Schlangen E (2010) Application of bacteria as self-healing agent for the development of sustainable concrete. Ecol Engrg 36:230–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karol RH (2003) Chemical grouting and soil stabilization, 3rd edn. Revised and Expanded. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kataki S, Baruah DC (2018) Prospects and issues of phosphorus recovery as struvite from waste streams. In: Hussain C (ed) Handbook of environmental materials management. Springer, Cham, pp 1–50Google Scholar
  58. Kavazanjian E, O’Donnell ST, Hamdan N (2015) Biogeotechnical mitigation of earthquake-induced soil liquefaction by denitrification: a two-stage process. In: Proceed 6th Int Conf on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 20–28Google Scholar
  59. Kawasaki S, Akiyama M (2013) Enhancement of unconfined compressive strength of sand test pieces cemented with calcium phosphate compound by addition of various powders. Soils Found 53:966–976. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keykha H, Asadi A (2017) Solar powered electro-bio-stabilization of soil with ammonium pollution prevention system. Adv Civil Engrg Mater 6:360–371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keykha HA, Afshin A, Bujang BKH, Kawasaki S (2018) Microbial induced calcite precipitation by Sporosarcina pasteurii and Sporosarcina aquimarina. Environ Geotech published online: January 02, 2018.
  62. Keykha H, Mohamadzadeh H, Asadi A, Kawasaki S (2019) Ammonium-free carbonate-producing bacteria as an ecofriendly soil biostabilizer. Geotech Test 42.
  63. Khanafari A, Khans FN, Sepahy AA (2011) An investigation of biocement production from hardwater. Middle-East J Sci Res 7:1990–9233Google Scholar
  64. Kiasari MA, Pakbaz MS, Ghezelbash GR (2018) Increasing of soil urease activity by stimulation of indigenous bacteria and investigation of their role on shear strength. Geomicrobiol J 35:821–828. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Konieczna I, Żarnowiec P, Kwinkowski M, Kolesińska B, Frączyk J, Kamiński Z, Kaca W (2012) Bacterial urease and its role in long-lasting human diseases. Curr Protein Pept Sci 13:789–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Krajewska B (2017) Urease-aided calcium carbonate mineralization for engineering applications: a review. J Adv Res 13:59–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee C, Lee H, Kim O (2018) Biocement fabrication and design application for a sustainable urban area. Sustainability 10:4079. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li M, Fang C, Kawasaki S, Huang M, Achal V (2018) Bio-consolidation of cracks in masonry cement mortars by Acinetobacter sp. SC4 isolated from a karst cave. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 1–7.
  69. Maheswaran S, Dasuru SS, Murthy ARC, Bhuvaneshwari B, Kumar VR, Palani GS, Iyer NR, Krishnamoorthy S, Sandhya S (2014) Strength improvement studies using new type wild strain Bacillus cereus on cement mortar. Cur Sci 106:50–57Google Scholar
  70. Martin D, Dodds K, Butler IB, Ngwenya BT (2013) Carbonate precipitation under pressure for bioengineering in the anaerobic subsurface via denitrification. Environ Sci Technol 47:8692–8699. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martins KB, Ferreira AM, Mondelli AL, Rocchetti TT, Lr de S da Cunha M (2018) Evaluation of MALDI-TOF VITEK®MS and VITEK® 2 system for the identification of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Future Microbiol 13:1603–1609. Epub 2018 Nov 13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mitchell JK, Santamarina JC (2005) Biological considerations in geotechnical engineering. J Geotech Geoenviron Engrg 131:1222–1233. Scholar
  73. Mortensen B, DeJong J (2011) Strength and stiffness of MICP treated sand subjected to various stress paths. In: Han J, Alzamora DA (eds) ASCE Geo-Frontiers 2011, Geotechnical Special Publication, USA, 211:4012–4020Google Scholar
  74. Nemati M, Voordouw G (2003) Modification of porous media permeability, using calcium carbonate produced enzymatically in situ. Enzyme Microb Technol 33:635–642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nemati M, Greene A, Voordouw G (2005) Permeability profile modification using bacterially formed calcium carbonate: Comparison with enzymatic option. Process Biochem 40:925–933. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Neupane D, Yasuhara H, Kinoshita N, Unno T (2013) Applicability of enzymatic calcium carbonate precipitation as a soil-strengthening technique. J Geotech Geoenviron 139:2201–2211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Neupane D, Yasuhara H, Kinoshita N, Ando Y (2015) Distribution of mineralized carbonate and its quantification method in enzyme mediated calcite precipitation technique. Soils Found 55:447–457. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Novakova D, Sedlacek I, Pantucek R, Stetina V, Svec P, Petras P (2006) Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus isolated from human clinical specimens. J Med Microbiol 55:523–528. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Orts WJ, Roa-Espinosa A, Sojka RE, Glenn GM, Imam SH, Erlacher K, Pedersen JS (2007) Use of synthetic polymers and biopolymers for soil stabilization in agricultural, construction, and military applications. J Mater Civil Eng 19:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pham V, Nakano A, van der Star WRL, Heimovaara T, van Paassen L (2016) Applying MICP by denitrification in soils: a process analysis. Environ Geotech 5:79–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rajasekar A, Xian J, Moy CKS, Wilkinson S (2017) Stimulation of indigenous carbonate precipitating bacteria for ground improvement. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environ Sci 68. 012010.
  82. Reddy S, Rao M, Aparna P, Sasikala C (2010) Performance of standard grade bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) concrete. Asian J Civil Engrg (Build Housing) 11:43–55Google Scholar
  83. Roeselers G, van Loosdrecht MCM (2010) Microbial phytase-induced calcium-phosphate precipitation – a potential soil stabilization method. Folia Microbiol 55:621–624. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sarda D, Choonia HS, Sarode DD, Lele SS (2009) Biocalcification by Bacillus pasteurii urease: a novel application. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:1111–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stabnikov V, Ivanov V (2017) Biotechnological production of biogrout from iron ore and cellulose. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 92:180–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stabnikov V, Chu J, Ivanov V (2013) Halotolerant, alkaliphilic urease-producing bacteria from different climate zones and their application for biocementation of sand. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 29:1453–1460. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stabnikov V, Ivanov V, Chu J (2015) Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31:1303–1314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stabnikov V, Ivanov V, Chu J (2016) Sealing of sand using spraying and percolating biogrouts for the construction of model aquaculture pond in arid desert. Int Aquatic Res 8:207–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stabnikov V, Naeimi M, Ivanov V, Chu J (2011) Formation of water-impermeable crust on sand surface using biocement. Cem Concr Res 41:1143–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Taponen S, Björkroth J, Pyörälä S (2008) Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine extramammary sites and intramammary infections in a single dairy herd. J Dairy Res 75:422–429. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. TBRA 466 (2010) Classification of prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) into risk groups. In: Technical rule for biological agents, edition: December 2010, GMBl 2010, No. 68–80 of 06.12.2010, pp. 1428–1667Google Scholar
  92. Tobler DJ, Cuthbert MO, Phoenix VR (2014) Transport of Sporosarcina pasteurii in sandstone and its significance for subsurface. engineering technologies Appl Geochem 42:38–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Varalakshmi AD,  Devi A (2014) Isolation and characterization of urease utilizing bacteria to produce biocement. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 8:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Whiffin VS, van Paassen LA, Harkes MP (2007) Microbial carbonate precipitation as a soil improvement technique. Geomicrobiol J 24:417–423. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wright DT, Oren A (2005) Nonphotosynthetic bacteria and the formation of carbonates and evaporites through time. Geomicrobiol J 22:27–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yazdi M, Bouzari M, Ghaemi EA (2018) Isolation and characterization of a potentially novel Siphoviridae phage (vB_SsapS-104) with lytic activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from urinary tract infection. Folia Microbiol (Praha).
  97. Yegian MK, Eseller-Bayat E, Alshawabkeh A (2007) Induced partial saturation for liquefaction mitigation: experimental investigation. J Geotech Geoenviron Engrg 133:372–380. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yu X, Jiang J (2018) Mineralization and cementing properties of bio-carbonate cement, bio-phosphate cement, and bio- carbonate/phosphate cement: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:21483–21497. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zell C, Resch M, Rosenstein R, Albrecht T, Hertel C, Götz F (2008) Characterization of toxin production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from food and starter cultures. Int J Food Microbiol 127:246–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, and Advanced Research LabNational University of Food TechnologiesKyivUkraine
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations