14-3-3 Proteins: a window for a deeper understanding of fungal metabolism and development

  • Liang Shi
  • Ang Ren
  • Jing Zhu
  • Hanshou Yu
  • Ailiang Jiang
  • Huihua Zheng
  • Mingwen ZhaoEmail author


Isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins, similar to their highly conserved homologs in mammals and plants, are both transcriptionally and functionally affected by their extracellular and intracellular environments. These proteins bind to phosphorylated client proteins to modulate their functions in fungi. Since phosphorylation regulates a plethora of different physiological responses in organisms, 14-3-3 proteins play roles in multiple physiological functions, including those controlling metabolisms, cell division, and responses to environmental stimulation. These proteins could also modulate signaling pathways that transduce inputs from the environment and downstream proteins that elicit physiological responses. Increasing evidence supports a prominent role for 14-3-3 proteins in regulating development and metabolism at various levels. In this review, we first provide a brief summary of the molecular structure of 14-3-3 proteins. Second, we discuss the potential roles of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of development and metabolism. Third, we review the roles of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of their binding partners, including receptors, protein kinases, and some protein kinase substrates. Finally, this review examines recent advances that further elucidate the role of 14-3-3 proteins in signaling transduction in response to environmental stress.


Fungi 14-3-3 Metabolism and development Process 



We thank American Journal Experts (Order ID: CW21KNLR) for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

Author contributions

LS and MZ designed the work; LS wrote the manuscript; AR, JZ, HY, AJ, HZ, and MZ edited the manuscript; All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 31672212 and 81773839), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (Project No. CARS-20), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Project No. 2016M590468), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (No. BK20171377).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Shi
    • 1
  • Ang Ren
    • 1
  • Jing Zhu
    • 1
  • Hanshou Yu
    • 1
  • Ailiang Jiang
    • 1
  • Huihua Zheng
    • 2
  • Mingwen Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of AgricultureNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Jiangsu Alphay Bio-technology Co., Ltd./ Key Laboratory of Edible Mushroom Processing, Ministry of AgricultureNantongPeople’s Republic of China

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