Molecular characterization of bmyC gene of the mosquito pupicidal bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) and in silico analysis of bacillomycin D synthetase C protein
- 105 Downloads
A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) exhibiting mosquito pupicidal, keratinase and antimicrobial activities was isolated from mangrove forest ecosystem of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Molecular characterization of the strain showed the presence of lipopeptide encoding bmyC gene. Phylogenetic tree based on protein sequence of this gene exhibited homology with mycosubtilin synthetase of Bacilus atropheus and Iturin synthetase of Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. This is the first report on the evolutionary conservation of amino acids concerned with the function and structure of bmyC protein of B. amyloliquefaciens. The presence of valine at the 1197th position in our strain was found to be unique and different from the existing strains of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Molecular modelling studies revealed significant changes in the structure of epimerization domain of the bmyC protein with A1197V variation. Crude metabolite of this strain exhibited antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. and Carvularia sp.
KeywordsBacillus amyloliquefaciens Bacillomycin Lipopeptide
The authors are grateful to the Director, Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry for his encouragement and valuable suggestions. Technical assistance rendered by Mr. S. Bhoopal Chakravarthy, Mrs. K. Vijayalakshmi and contribution of Mr. Y. Srinivas Murty in electronic artwork is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alvarez F, Castro M, Principe A, Borioli G, Fischer S, Mori G, Jofre E (2011) The plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains MEP218 and ARP23 capable of producing the cyclic lipopeptides iturin or surfactin and fengycin are effective in biocontrol of sclerotinia stem rot disease. J Appl Microbiol 112:159–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ashkenzay H, Erez E, Martz E, Pupko T, Ben-Tal N (2010) Consurf 2010: calculating evolutionary conservation in sequence and structure of proteins and nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids Res 38:W529W533Google Scholar
- Basha S, Ulaganathan K (2002) Antagonism of Bacillus sp. BC121 towards Curvularia lunata. Curr Sci 82:1457–1463Google Scholar
- Koumautsi A, Chen XH, Henne A, Liesegang H, Hitzeroth G, Franke P, Vater J, Borriss R (2004) Structural and functional characterization of gene clusters directing non ribosomal synthesis of bioactive cyclic lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42. J Bacteriol 186:1084–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li B, Li Q, Xu Z, Zhang N, Shen Q, Zhang R (2014) Responses of beneficial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 to different soilborne fungal pathogens through the alteration of antifungal compounds production. Front Microbiol 5:1–10Google Scholar
- Shrivastava A, Gupta MK, Singhal PK (2013) Nutritional and environmental optimization of antifungal potential of Bacillus strains. IJAR 1:1–6Google Scholar
- Zhao P, Quan C, Jin L, Wang L, Guo X, Fan S (2013) Sequence characterization and computational analysis of the nonribosomal peptide synthetases controlling biosynthesis of lipopeptides, fengycin and bacillomycin D, from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q426. Biotechnol Lett 35:2155–2163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar