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Microbial cyclophilins: specialized functions in virulence and beyond

Abstract

Cyclophilins belong to the superfamily of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases, EC: 5.2.1.8), the enzymes that catalyze the cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl peptide bonds in unfolded and partially folded polypeptide chains and native state proteins. Cyclophilins have been extensively studied, since they are involved in multiple cellular processes related to human pathologies, such as neurodegenerative disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. However, the presence of cyclophilins in all domains of life indicates a broader biological importance. In this mini-review, we summarize current advances in the study of microbial cyclophilins. Apart from their anticipated role in protein folding and chaperoning, cyclophilins are involved in several other biological processes, such as cellular signal transduction, adaptation to stress, control of pathogens virulence, and modulation of host immune response. Since many existing family members do not have well-defined functions and novel ones are being characterized, the requirement for further studies on their biological role and molecular mechanism of action is apparent.

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Acknowledgements

We apologize to the colleagues whose work we could not cite due to space limitations.

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Correspondence to Maria Dimou.

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Dimou, M., Venieraki, A. & Katinakis, P. Microbial cyclophilins: specialized functions in virulence and beyond. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33, 164 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-017-2330-6

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Keywords

  • Chaperone
  • Cyclophilin
  • Cyclosporin
  • Function
  • Gene distribution
  • Immunomodulation
  • Pathogenesis
  • Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase
  • Stress tolerance
  • Structure
  • Virulence