A mini review: photobioreactors for large scale algal cultivation
Microalgae cultivation has gained much interest in terms of the production of foods, biofuels, and bioactive compounds and offers a great potential option for cleaning the environment through CO2 sequestration and wastewater treatment. Although open pond cultivation is most affordable option, there tends to be insufficient control on growth conditions and the risk of contamination. In contrast, while providing minimal risk of contamination, closed photobioreactors offer better control on culture conditions, such as: CO2 supply, water supply, optimal temperatures, efficient exposure to light, culture density, pH levels, and mixing rates. For a large scale production of biomass, efficient photobioreactors are required. This review paper describes general design considerations pertaining to photobioreactor systems, in order to cultivate microalgae for biomass production. It also discusses the current challenges in designing of photobioreactors for the production of low-cost biomass.
KeywordsPhotobioreactors Biomass Biofuels Mass cultivation Algal biotechnology
The authors acknowledge the financial support provided to them by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, a Grant funded by Korean Government (MEST) (2012R1A2A4A01001539), and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2013006899).
- Andersen RA (2005) Algal culturing techniques, vol 13. Academic Press, New York, p 189Google Scholar
- Doran PM (2013) Bioprocess engineering principles, vol 14. Academic Press, New York, pp 751–852Google Scholar
- Oswald WJ (1969) Current status of microalgae from wastes. Chem Eng Prog Symp Ser 65:87Google Scholar
- Sharma NK, Rai AK, Stal LJ (2013) Cyanobacteria: an economic perspective, vol 17. Wiley, London, pp 255–271Google Scholar
- Singh A, Pant D, Olsen SI, Nigam PS (2012) Key issues to consider in microalgae based biodiesel production. Energy Educ Sci Technol A Energy Sci Res 29:563–576Google Scholar
- Yang ST (2011) Bioprocessing for value-added products from renewable resources: new technologies and applications, vol 19. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 491–507Google Scholar