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Changing bacterial profile of Sundarbans, the world heritage mangrove: Impact of anthropogenic interventions

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Abstract

Mangrove microbial communities and their associated activities have profound impact on biogeochemical cycles. Although microbial composition and structure are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors in the mangrove sediments, finding direct correlations between them remains a challenge. In this study we have explored sediment bacterial diversity of the Sundarbans, a world heritage site using a culture-independent molecular approach. Bacterial diversity was analyzed from three different locations with a history of exposure to differential anthropogenic activities. 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed and partial sequencing of the clones was performed to identify the microbial strains. We identified bacterial strains known to be involved in a variety of biodegradation/biotransformation processes including hydrocarbon degradation, and heavy metal resistance. Canonical Correspondence Analysis of the environmental and exploratory datasets revealed correlations between the ecological indices associated with pollutant levels and bacterial diversity across the sites. Our results indicate that sites with similar exposure of anthropogenic intervention reflect similar patterns of microbial diversity besides spatial commonalities.

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Acknowledgments

We acknowledge World Bank, for all the necessary support for the execution of the ICZM project. We would like to acknowledge the continuous encouragement and enthusiasm expressed by Mr. Tapas Paul, Task Team Leader, ICZM project and Dr. Herbert K. Acquay, Sector Manager, Environment Water Resources and Climate Change Sustainable Development, South Asia Region, The World Bank in our venture to explore the world heritage site, Sundarbans. We express our sincere gratitude to State Project Management Unit, ICZMP West Bengal for their continuous support and interest in our research work. We would like to acknowledge the instrument facility provided by UGC-CAS, DST–FIST in Department of Biochemistry and DNA-sequencing facility developed from the NCMP grant to University of Calcutta, India. We would like to thank Ms. Kakoli Mukherjee, IESWM, Kolkata for her help in constructing a working map of the study area of Sundarbans. It would not be possible to carry out this work without the help and support of the local people of the Sundarbans. We express our inability to acknowledge them individually. A.G. was supported by Ramanujan Fellowship from Department of Science and Technology, India (SR/S2/RJN-106/2012).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Abhrajyoti Ghosh or Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay or Maitree Bhattacharyya.

Additional information

Arpita Chakraborty, Amit Bera and Arghya Mukherjee have contributed equally to this work.

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Chakraborty, A., Bera, A., Mukherjee, A. et al. Changing bacterial profile of Sundarbans, the world heritage mangrove: Impact of anthropogenic interventions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31, 593–610 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-015-1814-5

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Keywords

  • Mangrove
  • Sundarbans
  • Polyaromatic hydrocarbons
  • Sediment pollution
  • 16S rRNA
  • Bacterial diversity
  • Multivariate analysis