World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 265–275 | Cite as

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines

  • Rolando PakingkingJr.Email author
  • Peter Palma
  • Roselyn Usero
Original Paper


The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 103 to 104 c.f.u. ml−1, 103–105, 105–107 and 104–107 c.f.u. g−1, respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics.


Microbiota Intestine Gills Earthen ponds Tilapia Philippines 



This study was funded by the Department of Science and Technology-National Research Council of the Philippines (DOST-NRCP) (NRCP Project No. E-225) and partly by SEAFDEC AQD (Study Code: FH02-F2013-T). We would like to thank Mr. Eric Ledesma and the laboratory staff of NPPMCI for the invaluable assistance during our sampling.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolando PakingkingJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter Palma
    • 1
  • Roselyn Usero
    • 2
  1. 1.Aquaculture DepartmentSoutheast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)TigbauanPhilippines
  2. 2.Negros Prawn Producers Marketing Cooperative, Inc.Bacolod CityPhilippines

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