Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts
The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 μl) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml−1). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml−1 (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml−1 (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml−1 (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85 %), followed by pH 7 (50 %) and pH 3 (15 %). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions.
KeywordsTrametes versicolor Induction Laccase Isoforms Aqueous wood extracts
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