World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 29, Issue 9, pp 1585–1595 | Cite as

Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

  • Shan-Gong Wu
  • Jing-Yun Tian
  • François-Joël Gatesoupe
  • Wen-Xiang Li
  • Hong Zou
  • Bao-Juan Yang
  • Gui-Tang WangEmail author
Original Paper


The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.


Gibel carp Intestine Microbiota Pyrosequencing 



The research was financially supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31272706), National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2009CB118705), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (No. 2009CDB331), and the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (No. CARS-46-08).

Supplementary material

11274_2013_1322_MOESM1_ESM.tif (915 kb)
Fig. S1 Hierarchically clustered heatmap of the bacterial distribution of different communities. Row represents the relative percentage of each bacterial family, and column stands for different samples. Clusterings based upon the distance of the different libraries along the X-axis and the bacterial families along the Y-axis are indicated in the upper and left of the figure, respectively. The relative values for each bacterial family are depicted by color intensity with the legend indicated at the upper left of the figure. The Z-score denoted a measure of distance, in standard deviations, away from the mean (TIFF 914kb)
11274_2013_1322_MOESM2_ESM.tif (249 kb)
Fig. S2 Venn diagram denoting the number of unique and shared OTUs (97%) in the different libraries (TIFF 248kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shan-Gong Wu
    • 1
  • Jing-Yun Tian
    • 2
  • François-Joël Gatesoupe
    • 3
  • Wen-Xiang Li
    • 1
  • Hong Zou
    • 1
  • Bao-Juan Yang
    • 1
  • Gui-Tang Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.National Oceanographic CenterQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.INRA, UR 1067 Nutrition Metabolism and Aquaculture, IfremerPlouzanéFrance

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