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World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 2671–2678 | Cite as

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical isolates collected through national antimicrobial resistance surveillance network in Nepal

  • Geeta Shakya
  • Dong Wook Kim
  • John D. Clemens
  • Sarala Malla
  • Bishnu Prasad Upadhyaya
  • Shyam Prakash Dumre
  • Sirjana Devi Shrestha
  • Shailaja Adhikari
  • Supriya Sharma
  • Nisha Rijal
  • Sanjaya K. Shrestha
  • Carl Mason
  • Palpasa KansakarEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Cholera occurs in sporadic cases and outbreaks in Nepal each year. Vibrio cholerae O1 (n = 522) isolated during 2007–2010 from diarrheal patients at 10 different hospital laboratories in Nepal were characterized. Biochemical and serologic identifications showed that all the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, El Tor biotype. Except 72 isolates of Inaba serotype isolated in the year 2007, all the remaining isolates were of Ogawa serotype. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and furazolidone. Resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole were 21, 4, 16 and 90 % respectively. Seventy-seven of these isolates were selected for further characterization for ctxB gene and MLVA typing. Two different variants of classical type cholera toxin were observed. Ogawa strains from 2007 and 2010-Western Nepal outbreak harbored CTX-3 type cholera toxin, whereas Inaba serotypes in 2007 and the remaining Ogawa serotypes in 2008–2010 harbored CTX 3b-type toxin. MLVA analysis showed circulation of four different groups of altered V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. Two different profiles were seen among 2007 Inaba (9, 3, 6, x, x) and Ogawa (10, 7, 6, x, x) isolates. The MLVA profile of 2008 and 2009 Ogawa isolates were similar to those of Inaba strains of 2007. Isolates from 2010 also showed three different MLVA profiles; profile 9, 3, 6, x, x in 3 isolates, 11, 7, 6, x, x among 2010 Western Nepal outbreak strains and profile 8, 3, 6, x, x among isolates from Butwal and Kathmandu.

Keywords

Vibrio cholerae Antimicrobial resistance Cholera toxin MLVA Nepal 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank all the laboratories participating in antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Nepal for referral of V. cholerae isolates to NPHL and Walter-Reed AFRIMS Research Unit, Nepal and IVI, Korea for their collaboration in isolate characterization. We acknowledge WHO-Nepal for financial support in the AMR Surveillance Program in Nepal.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geeta Shakya
    • 1
  • Dong Wook Kim
    • 2
    • 3
  • John D. Clemens
    • 2
  • Sarala Malla
    • 4
  • Bishnu Prasad Upadhyaya
    • 1
  • Shyam Prakash Dumre
    • 5
  • Sirjana Devi Shrestha
    • 1
  • Shailaja Adhikari
    • 1
  • Supriya Sharma
    • 1
  • Nisha Rijal
    • 1
  • Sanjaya K. Shrestha
    • 6
  • Carl Mason
    • 7
  • Palpasa Kansakar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Public Health LaboratoryKathmanduNepal
  2. 2.International Vaccine InstituteSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacy, College of PharmacyHanyang UniversityAnsanKorea
  4. 4.Om Hospital and Research CenterKathmanduNepal
  5. 5.Thammasat UniversityBangkokThailand
  6. 6.Walter Reed AFRIMS Research Unit Nepal (WARUN)KathmanduNepal
  7. 7.Armed Force Research Institute of Medical SciencesBangkokThailand

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