Human lactoferrin increases Helicobacter pylori internalisation into AGS cells
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Helicobacter pylori has high global infection rates and can cause other undesirable clinical manifestations such as duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC). Frequencies of re-infection after therapeutic clearance and rates of DU versus GC vary geographically and differ markedly between developed and developing countries, which suggests additional factors may be involved. The possibility that, in vivo, lactoferrin (Lf) may play a subtle role in modulating micronutrient availability or bacterial internalisation with implications for disease etiology is considered. Lf is an iron binding protein produced in mammals that has antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. Some bacteria that regularly colonise mammalian hosts have adapted to living in high Lf environments and we investigated if this included the gastric pathogen H. pylori. We found that H. pylori was able to use iron from fully iron-saturated human Lf (hLf) whereas partially iron-saturated hLf (apo) did not increase H. pylori growth. Instead, apo-hLf increased adherence to and internalisation of bacteria into cultured epithelial cells. By increasing internalisation, we speculate that apo-human lactoferrin may contribute to H. pylori’s ability to persistence in the human stomach, an observation that potentially has implications for the risk of H. pylori-associated disease.
KeywordsLactoferrin Helicobacter pylori Adhesion Invasion Bacterial internalisation
DSC supported by Fulbright NZ and GenØk—Centre for Biosafety. This work was presented in part at the New Zealand Microbiology Society Conference 2008, Christchurch NZ and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment of Transgene Flow 2009, Tromsø, Norway.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
3-D animation of cells depicted in Fig. 6b, showing attachment and uptake of H. pylori to AGS cells. Nuclei - blue, H. pylori - green, actin - red. ×40 objective.(MP4 395 kb)
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