World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 1301–1308

Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial consortium isolated from agriculture soil

  • Chitrambalam Sasikala
  • Sonia Jiwal
  • Pallabi Rout
  • Mohandass Ramya
Short Communication

Abstract

Organophosphorous pesticides are widely used in agriculture to control major insect pests. Chlorpyrifos is one of the major organophosphorous pesticides which is used to control insects including termites, beetles. The widespread use of these pesticides is hazardous to the environment and also toxic to mammals, thus it is essential to remove the same from the environment. From the chlorpyrifos contaminated soil nine morphologically different bacterial strains, one actinomycete and two fungal strains were isolated. Among those isolates four bacterial strains which were more efficient were developed as consortium. The four bacterial isolates namely Pseudomonas putida (NII 1117), Klebsiella sp., (NII 1118), Pseudomonas stutzeri (NII 1119), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NII 1120) present in the consortia were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis. The intracellular fractions of the consortium exhibited more organophosphorus hydrolase activity (0.171 ± 0.003 U/mL/min). The degradation studies were carried out at neutral pH and temperature 37°C with chlorpyrifos concentration 500 mg L−1. LC-mass spectral analysis showed the presence of metabolites chlopyrifos-oxon and Diethylphosphorothioate. These results highlight an important potential use of this consortium for the cleanup of chlorpyrifos contaminated pesticide waste in the environment.

Keywords

Biodegradation Organophosphorous pesticides Chlorpyrifos Chlorpyrifos oxon 

Abbreviations

CP

Chlorpyrifos

TCP

3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol

OPH

Organophosphorous hydrolase

OPs

Organophosphates

MSM

Minimal salt medium

References

  1. Anwar S, Liaquat F, Khan QM, Khalid ZM, Iqbal S (2009) Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus strain C2A1. J Hazard Mater 68:400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baskaran S, Kookana RS, Naidu R (1999) Degradation of bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid in soil and bedding materials at termiticidal application rates. Pestic Sci 55:1222–1228Google Scholar
  3. Cho KM, Math RK, Islam SA, Lim WJ, Hong SY, Kim JM, Yun MG, Cho JJ, Yun HD (2009) Biodegradation of chlopyrifos by lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation. J Agr Food Chem 57:1882–1889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chu X, Fang H, Pan X, Wang X, Shan M, Feng B, Yu Y (2008) Degradation of chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with chlorothalonil and their effects on soil microbial populations. J Environ Sci 20(4):464–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fang H, Yu YL, Wang X, Shan M, Wu XM, Yu JQ (2006) Dissipation of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi-vegetated soil in a greenhouse. J Environ Sci 18(4):760–764Google Scholar
  6. Garg A, Mehetre S, Sherkhane P, Eapen S, Kale SP (2010) Biodegradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos by hairy root culture of Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste & Reynier. Curr Sci 99(7):896–899Google Scholar
  7. Ghanem I, Orfi M, Shamma M (2007) Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Klebsiella sp. isolated from an activated sludge sample of waste water treatment plant in damascus. Folia Microbiol 52:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Karpouzas DG, Singh BK (2006) Microbial degradation of organophosphorus xenobiotics: metabolic pathways and molecular basis. Adv Microb Physiol 51:119–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kulshrestha G, Kumari A (2011) Fungal degradation of chlorpyrifos by Acremonium sp. strain (GFRC-1) isolated from a laboratory-enriched red agricultural soil. Biol Fertil Soils 47(2):219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kumar M, Laksmi CV, Khanna S (2008) Biodegradation and bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil. Bioresour Technol 99:3116–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lakshmi CV, Kumar M, Khanna S (2009) Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos in soil by enriched cultures. Curr Microbiol 58:35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mallick K, Bharati K, Banerji A, Shaki NA, Sethunathan N (1999) Bacterial degradation of chlorpyrifos in pure cultures and in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 62:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mukherjee I, Gopal M (1996) Degradation of chlorpyrifos by two soil fungi Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride. Toxicol Environ Chem 57(1–4):145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mulbry WW, Karns J (1989) Purification and characterization of three parathion hydrolases from gram negative bacterial strains. Appl Environ Microb 55:289–293Google Scholar
  15. Racke KD (1993) Environmental fate of chlorpyrifos: review. Environ Contam Toxicol 131:1–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Richnis R, Kaeava I, Mulchandani A, Chen W (1997) Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by surface-expressed organophosphorus hydrolase. Nat Biotechnol 15:984–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Singh BK, Walker A (2006) Microbial degradation of organophosphorous compounds. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:428–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Singh BK, Walker A, Morgan JAW, Wright DJ (2004) Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Enterobacter Strain B-14 and its use in bioremediation of contaminated soils. Appl Environ Microb 70:4855–4863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tang J, Ceo Y, Rose RL, Brimfield AA, Dai D, Goldstein JA, Hodgson E (2001) Metabolism of chlorpyrifos by human cytochrome P450 isoforms and human, mouse and rat liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 29:1201–1204Google Scholar
  20. Thengodkar RR, Sivakami S (2010) Degradation of chlorpyrifos by an alkaline phosphatase from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Biodegradation 21(4):637–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Weisberg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ (1991) 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 173:697–703Google Scholar
  22. Wilson K (1990) Preparation of genomic DNA from bacteria. In: Ausubel FM, Brent R (eds) Current protocols in molecular biology. Greene Publ. Assoc. and Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 241–245Google Scholar
  23. Xu G, Zheng W, Li Y, Wang S, Zhang J, Yan Y (2008) FRP. Int Biodeter Biodegr 62:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang H, Yang C, Zhao Q, Qiao C (2008) Development of an auto fluorescent organophosphates-degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. with dehalogenase activity for the biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Bioresou Technol 100:3199–3204CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chitrambalam Sasikala
    • 2
  • Sonia Jiwal
    • 1
  • Pallabi Rout
    • 1
  • Mohandass Ramya
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of BioengineeringSRM UniversityKattankulathurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Genetic Engineering, School of BioengineeringSRM UniversityKattankulathurIndia

Personalised recommendations