World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 257–263 | Cite as

Comparison of gamma-aminobutyric acid production in Thai rice grains

  • Panatda Jannoey
  • Hataichanoke Niamsup
  • Saisamorn Lumyong
  • Toshisada Suzuki
  • Takeshi Katayama
  • Griangsak Chairote
Original Paper


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has many pharmacological functions including being a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Two comparative methods for GABA production in rice grains as main food source in Thailand were investigated in this study. Fermentation and germination method were separately carried out using seven selected local grain cultivars in northern Thailand. Red yeast rice, obtained from the fermentation method, gave the higher GABA concentration than the germinated rice produced from the germination method in most rice cultivars. The highest GABA concentration was 28.37 mg/g at 3 weeks fermentation time of glutinous rice, O. sativa L. cv. Sanpatong 1 cultivars, while germinated rice from glutinous rice; O. sativa L. cv. Korkor6 (RD6) cultivars contained the highest GABA concentration of 3.86 mg/g. These results provide information for the basis of an appropriate method for GABA production. The fermentation produced higher GABA concentration but required longer production period and red yeast rice was obtained as product. On the other hand, the germination method yielded rice grains with lower GABA but in more suitable form for consumption. Both methods are considered to be economical and efficient methods to increase GABA in rice grains, providing alternative products with higher nutritional values.


GABA Rice Germination Fermentation Monascus purpureus Glutamate decarboxylase 



We gratefully acknowledge the full financial support from the Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand for financial support by grant under the program Strategic Scholarships for Frontier Research Network for the Ph.D. Program Thai Doctoral degree for this research. As well as partial support from Rachabhut Pibulsongkram University, Pitsanulok, Thailand and The Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry for Postgraduate Education and Research Program in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Thailand and Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panatda Jannoey
    • 1
  • Hataichanoke Niamsup
    • 1
  • Saisamorn Lumyong
    • 2
  • Toshisada Suzuki
    • 3
  • Takeshi Katayama
    • 3
  • Griangsak Chairote
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Food Science, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityMiki-ChoJapan

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