Advertisement

World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 1821–1828 | Cite as

Synergistic biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by Bacillus cereus (DQ002384), Serratia marcescens (AY927692) and Serratia marcescens (DQ002385)

  • Shail Singh
  • B. B. Singh
  • R. Chandra
  • D. K. Patel
  • V. Rai
Original Paper

Abstract

The consortium of Bacillus cereus (DQ002384), Serratia marcescens (AY927692) and Serratia marcescens (DQ002385) were used for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation. The consortia showed better overall removal efficiencies than single strains by utilization of PCP as a carbon and energy source confirmed by pH dependent dye indicator bromocresol purple (BCP) in mineral salt media (MSM). Mixed culture was found to degrade up to 93% of PCP (300 mg/l) as compared to single strains (62.75–90.33%), at optimized conditions (30 ± 1°C, pH 7 ± 0.2, 120 rpm) at 168 h incubation. PCP degradation was also recorded at 20°C (62.75%) and 37°C (83.33%); pH 6 (70%) and pH 9 (75.16%); 50 rpm (73.33%) and 200 rpm (91.63%). The simultaneous release of chloride ion up to 90.8 mg/l emphasized the bacterial dechlorination in the medium. GC–MS analysis revealed the formation of low molecular weight compound, i.e., 6-chlorohydroxyquinol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, from degraded sample as compared to control.

Keywords

Pentachlorophenol Degradation Dechlorination GC–MS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors are thankful to Director, ITRC, Lucknow, for his encouragement. The financial support from Council of Science and Technology, U.P. is also highly acknowledged.

References

  1. Arnaud J-P, Lacroix C, Choplin L (1992) Effect of agitation rate on cell release rate and metabolism during continuous fermentation with entrapped growing Lactobacillus casei subsp., casei. Biotechnol Techniq 6:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergmann JG, Sanik J (1957) Determination of trace amounts of chlorine in naphtha. Anal Chem 29:241–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chandra R, Ghosh A, Jain RK, Singh S (2006) Isolation and characterization of two potential pentachlorophenol degrading aerobic bacteria from pulp paper effluent sludge. J Gen App Microbiol 52:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chitra S, Sekaran G, Padmavathi S, Chandrakasan G (1995) Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewater using mutant strain of Pseudomonas pictorum. J Gen App Microbiol 41:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Los Cobos-Vasconcelos D, Santoyo Tepole F, Juárez-Ramírez C, Ruiz-Ordaz N, Galíndez-Mayer CJJ (2006) Cometabolic degradation of chlorophenols by a strain of Burkholderia in fed-batch culture. Enzyme Microbiol Technol 40:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Environmental Protection Agency EPA (1987) Final determination and indent to cancel and deny applications for registrations of pesticide products containing pentachlorophenol (including but not limited to its salts and esters) for non-wood uses. US Environmental Protection Agency. Fed Regist 52:2282–2293Google Scholar
  7. Gerlach RW, Emon JMV (1997) Site evaluation of field portable pentachlorophenol immunoassays. Chemosphere 35:2727–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gurujeyalakshmi H, Oriel P (1989) Isolation of phenol degrading Bacillus stearothermophilus and partial characterization of phenol hydrolase. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:500–502Google Scholar
  9. Häggblom MM (1992) Microbial breakdown of halogenated aromatic pesticides and related compounds. FEMS Microbiol Rev 103:29–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Häggblom MM, Valo RJ (1995) Bioremediation of chlorophenol wastes. In: Young LY, Cerniglia CE (eds) Microbial transformation and degradation of toxic organic chemicals. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 389–434Google Scholar
  11. Holding AJ, Collee JG (1971) Routine biochemical tests. In: Norris JR, Ribbons DW (eds) Methods in Microbiology, vol 6A, Academic Press, London, pp 1732Google Scholar
  12. Hong J, Kim DG, Cheong C, Jung SY, Yoo NR, Kim KJ, Kim TK, Park YC et al (2000) Identification of photolytical transformation products of PCP in water. Anal Sci 16:621–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klecka GM, Maier WJ (1988) Kinetics of microbial growth on mixtures of pentachlorophenol and chlorinated aromatic compounds. Biotechnol Bioeng 31:328–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MacLeod CT, Daugulis AJ (2005) Interfacial effects in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a hydrophobic mycobacterium. Process Biochem 40:1799–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Männisto MK, Salinoja-Salonen MS, Puhakka JA (2001) In situ polychlorophenol bioremediation potential of the indigenous bacterial community of boreal groundwater. Water Res 35:2496–2504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martins JM, Jocteur ML, Chalamet A, Bardin R (1997) Microbial response to repeated applications of low concentrations of pasture. Chemosphere 35:1637–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McAllister KA, Hung H, Trevors JT (1996) Microbial degradation of pentachlorophenol. Biodegradation 7:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Miller MN, Stratton GW, Murray G (2004) Effects of soil moisture and aeration on the biodegradatic of pentachlorophenol contaminated soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 72:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohn WW, Kennedy KJ (1992) Reductive dehalogenation of chlorophenol by Desulfomonite tiedjei DCB-1. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1367–1370Google Scholar
  20. Morgan P, Watkinson RJ (1989) Microbiological methods for the cleanup of soil ground water contamined with halogenated organic compounds. FEMS Microbiol Review 63:277–300Google Scholar
  21. Piccininia P, Pichatb P, Guillardb C (1998) Phototransformations of solid pentachlorophenol. J Photochem Photobiol Chem 119:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Premalatha A, Rajkumar GS (1994) Pentachlorophenol degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 10:334–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Puhakka JA, Herwig RP, Koro PM, Wolfe GV, Ferguson JF (1995) Biodegradation of chlorinated by mixed and pure cultures from a fluidized bed reactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Salmerón-Alcocer A, Ruiz-Ordaz N, Juárez-Ramírez C, Galíndez-Mayer J (2007) Continuous biodegradation of single and mixed chlorophenols by a mixed microbial culture constituted by Burkholderia sp., Microbacterium phyllosphaerae, and Candida tropicalis. Biochem Eng J 37:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shah S, Thakur IS (2003) Enzymatic dehalogenation of pentachlorophenol by Pseudomonas fluorescens of the microbial community from tannery effluent. Curr Microbiol 47:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shimp RJ, Pfaender FK (1987) EEect of adaptation to phenol on biodegradation of monosubstituted phenols by aquatic microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:1496–1499Google Scholar
  27. Silver RS, Mateles RI (1969) Control of mixed-substrate utilization in continuous cultures of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 97:535–543Google Scholar
  28. Singh S, Chandra R, Patel DK, Rai V (2007) Isolation and characterization of novel Serratia marcescens (AY927692) for pentachlorophenol degradation from pulp and paper mill waste. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:1747–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh S, Chandra R, Patel DK, Reddy MMK, Rai V (2008) Investigation of the biotransformation of pentachlorophenol and pulp paper mill effluent decolorisation by the bacterial strains in a mixed culture. Bioresource Technol 99:5703–5709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suegara J, Lee BD, Espino MP (2005) Photodegradation of pentachlorophenol and its degradation pathways predicted using density functional theory. Chemosphere 61:341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tuomel M, Lyytikäinen M, Oivanen P, Hataka A (1999) Mineralization and conversion of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil inoculated with the white-rot fungus. Soil Biol Biochem 31:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wittmann C, Zeng AP, Deckwer WD (1998) Physiological characterization and cultivation strategies of the pentachlorophenol-degrading bacteria Sphingomonas chlorophenolica RA2 and Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum PCP-1. J Indust Microbiol Biotechnol 21:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shail Singh
    • 1
  • B. B. Singh
    • 1
  • R. Chandra
    • 1
  • D. K. Patel
    • 2
  • V. Rai
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Microbiology SectionIndian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Analytical Chemistry SectionIndian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesPandit Ravi Shankar Shukla UniversityRaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations