Isolation and characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria from arsenic-contaminated soils in Thailand
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Two hundred and eighty-eight arsenic-resistant bacteria were isolated by an enrichment culture method from a total of 69 arsenic-contaminated soil-samples collected from Dantchaeng district in Suphanburi province (47 samples), and from Ron Phiboon district in Nakhon Sri Thammarat province (22 samples), in Central and Southern Thailand, respectively. Twenty-four of the 288 isolated arsenic-resistant bacteria were found to be arsenite-oxidizing bacteria. On the basis of their morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and supported by phylogenetic analysis based upon their 16S rRNA gene sequences, they were divided into five groups, within the genera Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Sinorhizobium and Sphingomonas, respectively. Within genera, phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that they were comprised of at least ten species, five isolates being closely related to known bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCCB 22016T, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida FPC951T, Ps. knackmussii B13T, Sinorhizobium morelense Lc04T, and Sphingomonas subterranea IFO16086T). The other five proposed species are likely to be new species closely related to Flavobacterium johnsoniae, Sinorhizobium morelense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, but this awaits further characterization for confirmation of the taxonomic status. No overlap in isolated species or strains was observed between the two sites. The strain distribution and characterization are described.
KeywordsAcinetobacter Arsenite-oxidizing bacteria Flavobacterium Pseudomonas Sinorhizobium Sphingomonas
The authors thank Mr. Paichayon Charoenchaisri, Bureau of Environmental Management, Department of Primary Industries and Mines, Ministry of Industry for providing assistance in soil sampling and Dr. Robert Butcher for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the International Environmental Research Center (IERC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Korea.
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