Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia DC.
The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves and stems of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components in the leaf oil were limonene, pregeijerene, geijerene and germacrene D, while stem oil was rich in limonene, methyl eugenol, pregeijerene and geijerene. The essential oils were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria and four pathogenic fungi using agar disc diffusion technique. Subsequently, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from oils was determined by broth microdilution. Both the oils exhibited moderate to strong activities against all the organisms tested. Bacillus subtilis was most susceptible at 100 μg/ml of leaf and stem oils with inhibition zones of 15.9 and 13.1 mm respectively. Among all the fungi tested, A. niger inhibited effectively with a zone of inhibition of 14.9 and 11.5 mm for leaf and stem oils respectively. The results obtained suggest that the essential oils of the plant possess antimicrobial properties and serve as a biofriendly source of antimicrobial ingredients for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
KeywordsEssential oils Chloroxylon swietenia Antimicrobial activity Sesquiterpenes
- Adams RP (1989) Identification of essential oils by Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Clevenger JF (1928) Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. J Am Pharm Assoc 17:346Google Scholar
- Farag RS, Daw ZY, Hewedi FM, El-Baroty GSA (1989) Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian spice essential oils. J Food Prot 52:665–667Google Scholar
- Garg SC, Oswal VB (1996) Essential oil from the leaves of Chloroxylon swietenia. Ind Perf 40:76–78Google Scholar
- Jennings W, Shibamoto T (1980) Qualitative analysis of flavour and fragrance volatiles by glass capillary chromatography. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) (2007a) Methods for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts. Approved Guideline. M44-A, Wayne PAGoogle Scholar
- NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) (2007b) M44-S2 (Electronic Document) Informational Supplement. M44-S2, Wayne, PAGoogle Scholar
- Rota C, Carraminana JJ, Burillo J, Herrera A (2004) In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected food borne pathogens. J Food Prot 67:1252–1256Google Scholar
- Sharief U, Jagadishchandra KS (1999) In: Khan IA, Khanum A (eds) Role of biotechnology in medicinal, aromatic plants, vol 2. Ukaaz, Hyderabad, pp 376–391Google Scholar