Spoilage yeasts from Patagonian cellars: characterization and potential biocontrol based on killer interactions
Indigenous yeasts associated with surfaces in three North Patagonian cellars were isolated by means of selective media developed for the isolation of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts; 81 isolates were identified as belonging to Candida boidinii (16%), Hanseniaspora uvarum (38%), Pichia guilliermondii (3%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1%), Geotrichum silvicola (16%) and the new yeast species Candida patagonica (26%). No Dekkera/Brettanomyces isolate was obtained, however, 41 isolates (51% of the total isolates) produced some enologically undesirable features under laboratory conditions including the production of 4-ethylphenol and 4-vinylphenol, observed in the Candida boidinii and Pichia guilliermondii isolates. The sensitivity of the 41 spoilage isolates and seven Brettanomyces bruxellensis collection strains was evaluated against a panel of 55 indigenous and ten reference killer yeasts. Killer cultures belonging to Pichia anomala and Kluyveromyces lactis species showed the broadest killer spectrum against spoilage yeasts, including Dekkera bruxellensis collection strains. These killer isolates could be good candidates for use in biocontrol of regionally relevant spoilage yeasts.
Keywords4-ethylphenol Cellar equipment Killer toxin Spoilage Wine yeast
This work was supported by Universidad Nacional del Comahue project I-117, CONICET Grant Res.1104/04 and PIP 6494. We are grateful to UVEG and CSIC for kindly supplying online yeast database access (http://www.yeast-id.com).
- Barata A, Nobre A, Correia P, Malfeito-Ferreira M, Loureiro V (2006) Growth and 4-ethylphenol production by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii in grape juices. Am J Enol Viticult 57:133–138Google Scholar
- Du Toit M, Pretorius IS (2000) Microbial spoilage and preservation of wine: using weapons from nature´s own arsenal: A review. S Afr J Enol Viticult 21:74–96Google Scholar
- Fleet GH (1993) The microorganims of winemaking: isolation, enumeration and identification. In: Fleet GH (ed) Wine microbiology and biotechnology. Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland, pp 1–25Google Scholar
- Fleet GH (1998) Microbiology of alcoholic beverages. In: Wood BJ (ed) Microbiology of fermented foods, Vol. I, 2nd edn. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, pp 217–262Google Scholar
- Kurtzman CP, Fell JW (1998) The yeasts a taxonomic study, 4th edn. Elseiver Sci Publ, Amsterdam, 1055 pGoogle Scholar
- Magliani W, Conti S, Gerloni M, Bertolotti D, Polonelli L (1997) Yeast killer systems. Clin Microbiol Rev 3:369–400Google Scholar
- Sangorrín MP, Lopes CA, Giraudo MR, Caballero AC (2007a) Diversity and killer behaviour of indigenous yeasts isolated from the fermentation vats surfaces in four patagonian wineries. Int J Food Microbiol (in press DOI 10.1016/ j.ijfoodmicro.2007.04.010)Google Scholar
- Stratford M (2006) Food and beverage spoilage yeast. In: Querol A, Feet G (eds) Yeasts in food and beverages. Springer-Velarg Berlin Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar