Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Drought Stress Response on Some Key Enzymes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Nodule Metabolism

  • 107 Accesses

  • 56 Citations

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the response to drought stress of cowpea nodule enzymatic activities during different plant developmental stages leading to biological N2 fixation. Stress was applied by controlling soil’s water-potential through a porous cup. Cowpea plants cv IPA 205 were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potential (ψm) treatments. Even with high evaporative demand and limited soil water availability, cowpea could not induce an extremely low leaf water potential (ψw). Sap ureides concentration in cowpea declined during the drought stress period. There was a decline in enzyme activity in the metabolic pathways concerned with N2 fixation: NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14), glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31). In contrast, an increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.4) was observed as the ψm declined. Metabolism associated with N2 assimilation was impaired every time that the ψw was reduced below −0.73 MPa as had happened in the stressed treatments. The stress applied by the porous cup was gradual and the plant recovered its turgor, avoiding permanent deleterious alterations in the cellular metabolism, even from a limited cowpea-growth ψm.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bataglia OC (1989) Sistemas de irrigação em vasos para experimentos de adubação. Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Solo 13:81–86

  2. Brasil, Ministério da Agricultura (1997) Manual de Métodos de Análises de Solo. 2 ed. EMBRAPA-CNPS, Rio de Janeiro

  3. Costa MMMN, Távora FJAF, Pinho JLN de, Melo FIO (1997) Produção, componentes de produção, crescimento e distribuição das raízes de caupi submetido à deficiência hídrica. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 32:43–50

  4. Diaz del Castillo L, Hunt S, Layzel DB (1994) The role of oxygen in the regulation of nitrogenase activity in drought stressed soybean nodules. Plant Physiol 106:949–955

  5. Diniz MCNM, Burity HA, Figueiredo MVB (2002) Development and regrowth of cunha (Clitoria ternatea L.) under water stress, in association with mycorrhizal fungi-Bradyrhizobium. Agrochimica 46:52–58

  6. Farnden KLF, Robertson JG (1980) Methods for studying enzymes involved in metabolism related to nitrogenase. In: Bergersen JF (ed) Methods of evaluating biological nitrogen fixation. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, pp 265–316, ISBN 0471277592

  7. Figueiredo MVB, Burity HA, de França FP (1998a) Water deficit stress effects on N2 fixation in cowpea inoculated with different Bradyrhizobium strains. Can J Plant Sci 78:577–582

  8. Figueiredo MVB, Vilar JJ, Burity HA, de França FP (1998b) Alleviation of water stress effects in cowpea by Bradyrhizobium spp. inoculation. Plant Soil 207:67–75

  9. González EM, Aparício-Tejo PM, Gordon AJ, Minchin FR, Roynele M, Arrese-Igor C (1998) Water-deficit effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism of pea nodules. J Exp Bot 49(327):1705–1714

  10. González EM, Gordon AJ, James CL, Arrese-Igor C (1995) The role of sucrose synthase in the response of soybean nodules to drought. J Exp Bot 46:1515–1523

  11. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1938) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. University of California, Berkeley, 39 pp. ASIN B00088TA3W

  12. Hsiao TC (1973) Plant responses to water stress. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 24:519–570

  13. Hungria M, Araújo RS (1994) Metabolismo de carbono e nitrogênio nos nódulos. In: Hungria M, Araújo RS (eds) Manual de Métodos Empregados em Estudos de Microbiologia Agrícola. Embrapa, Brasília, pp 250–283

  14. Hungria M, Barradas CAA, Wallsgrove RM (1991) Nitrogen fixation, assimilation and transport during the initial growth stage of Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Exp Bot 42:839–844

  15. Kramer PJ (1963) Water stress and plant growth. Agron J 55:31–35

  16. Mundree SG, Baker B, Mowla S, Peters S, Marais S, Willigen CV, Govender K, Maredza A, Muyanga S, Farrant JM, Thomson JA (2002) Physiology and molecular insights into drought tolerance. Afr J Biotechnol 1:28–38

  17. Parsons RA, Stanforth A, Raven JA, Sprent JI (1993) Nodule growth and activity may be regulated by a feedback mechanism involving phloem nitrogen. Plant Cell Environ 16:125–136

  18. Ramos MLG, Parsons R, Sprent JI, James EK (2003) Effect of water stress on nitrogen fixation and nodule structure of common bean. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 38:339–347

  19. Rengel Z (2002) Breeding for better symbiosis. Plant Soil 245:147–162

  20. Scholander PF, Hemmingsen EA, Hammel HT, Bradstreet HD (1964) Hydrostatic pressure + osmotic potential in leaves of mangroves + some other plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 52:119–125

  21. Schweizer P, Erismann KH (1985) Effect of nitrate and ammonium nutrition of non-nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris L. on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activity. Plant Physiol 78:455–458

  22. Serraj R, Sinclair TR, Purcell LC (1999) Symbiotic N2 fixation response to drought. J Exp Bot 50:143–155

  23. Serraj R, Vadez V, Sinclair TR (2001) Feedback regulation of symbiotic N2 fixation under drought stress. Agronomie 2:621–626

  24. Silveira JAG (1993) Relações entre metabolismo de C e N: Fixação não-fotossintética de CO2 e assimilação de N inorgânico. In: Fernandes et al (eds) I Simpósio Brasileiro sobre nitrogênio em plantas. Sociedade Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal, Itaguaí, pp 217–234

  25. Silveira JAG, Contado JL, Rodrigues JLM, Oliveira JTA (1998) Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glutamine synthetase activities in relation to nitrogen fixation in cowpea nodules. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal 10:19–23

  26. Silveira JAG, Viegas RA, Figueiredo MVB, Oliveira JTA, Costa RCL (2003) N-compound accumulation and carbohydrate shortage on N2 fixation in drought-stressed and rewatered cowpea plants. Spanish J Agric Res 3:65–76

  27. Sinclair TR, Purcell LC, Vadez V, Serraj R (2001) Selection of soybean (Glycine max) lines for increased tolerance of N2 fixation to drying soil. Agronomie 21:653–657

  28. Sprent JI (1981) Nitrogen fixation. In: Paleg LG, Aspinall D (eds) The physiology and biochemistry of drought resistance in plants. Academic Press, New York, pp 131–143, ISBN 0125443803

  29. Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1960) Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN 007060925X

  30. Streeter JG (1993) Translocation – a key factor limiting the efficiency of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Physiol Plant 87:616–623

  31. Venkateswarlu B, Saharan N, Maheswari M (1990) Nodulation and N2 (C2H2) fixation in cowpea and groundnut during water-stress and recovery. Field Crops Res 25:223–232

  32. Vogels GD, Van der Drift C (1970) Differential analyses of glyoxylate derivatives. Anal Biochem 33:143–157

Download references

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) do Brazil for financial support.

Author information

Correspondence to M. V. B. Figueiredo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Figueiredo, M.V.B., Burity, H.A., Martínez, C.R. et al. Drought Stress Response on Some Key Enzymes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Nodule Metabolism. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23, 187–193 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-006-9208-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Bradyrhizobium sp.
  • N2 fixation
  • Nodulins
  • Symbiosis
  • Vigna unguiculata
  • Water stress