World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 837–843 | Cite as

Characterization of an extracellular biopolymer flocculant from a haloalkalophilic Bacillus isolate

  • C. Ganesh Kumar
  • Han-seung Joo
  • Rajesh Kavali
  • Jang-won Choi
  • Chung-soon Chang


A biopolymer flocculant, produced by a haloalkalophilic Bacillus sp. I-471 was isolated from a sea water sample from the tidal mud flats surrounding the city of Inchon, Korea. The bioflocculant (EPS471) was produced in late logarithmic growth phase, recovered by cold ethanol precipitation of the cell-free supernatant and purified by cetylpyridinium chloride treatment. Chemical analyses of EPS471 indicated that it was an acidic polysaccharide containing neutral sugars, namely, galactose, fructose, glucose (approximate ratio of 5:2:1) and uronic acids as major and minor components, respectively. SEM studies revealed that the polymer had a porous structure with small pore size distribution indicating the compactness of the polymer. Spectroscopic analyses of the polymer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups typical for a polysaccharide and that the polymer was a heteroglycan. The degradation temperature (Td) analyzed by thermogravimetry was 307 °C. The rheological analysis showed the pseudoplastic nature of the polymer with shear-thinning behaviour. The polymer EPS471 may find possible application as an polymer for environmental bioremediation and other biotechnological processes.


sp. EPS flocculant haloalkalophile polysaccharide rheology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BeMiller, J.N. & Whistler, R.L. 1996 Carbohydrates. In Food Chemistry, 3rd edn. ed. Fennema, O.R. pp. 178–185. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-82479691-8.Google Scholar
  2. Chaplin, M.F., Kennedy, J.F. 1986Carbohydrate Analysis: A Practical ApproachIRL PressWashington, DC129136ISBN 0-19963449-1Google Scholar
  3. Corsaro, M.M., Grant, W.D., Grant, S., Marciano, C.E., Parrilli, M. 1999Structural determination of an exopolysaccharide closely related to Bacillus spEuropean Journal of Biochemistry264554561Google Scholar
  4. Dearfield, K.L., Abermathy, C.O. 1988Acrylamide: its metabolism, developmental and reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicityMutation Research1954577Google Scholar
  5. de Brouwer, J.F.C., Bjelic, S., de Deckere, E.M.G.T. & Stal, L.J. 2000 Interplay between biology and sedimentology in a mudflat (Biezelingse Ham, Westerschelde, The Netherlands). Continental Shelf Research 20, 1159–1177.Google Scholar
  6. Dugan, R. 1987

    The function of microbial polysaccharide in bioflocculation and biosorption of mineral ions

    Attia, Y.A. eds. Flocculation in Biotechnology and Separation Systems: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Flocculation in Biotechnology and Separation SystemsElsevier ScienceAmsterdam337351ISBN 0-44442752-4
    Google Scholar
  7. Gutcho, S. 1977Waste Treatment with Polyelectrolytes and Other FlocculantsNoyes Data Corp.Park Ridge, NJ137 ISBN 0-81550648-1Google Scholar
  8. Ha, Y.W., Stack, R., Hespell, R.B., Gordon, S.H., Bothast, R.J. 1991Some chemical and physical properties of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strainsApplied and Environmental Microbiology5720162020Google Scholar
  9. James, K.C. 1986 Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Solubility and Related Properties Marcel DekkerNew York91125ISBN 0-82477484-1; vol.28Google Scholar
  10. Kazy, S.K., Sar, P., Singh, S.P., Sen, A.K., D’Souza, S.F. 2002Extracellular polysaccharide of a copper-sensitive and a copper-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain: synthesis, chemical nature and copper binding World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology18583588Google Scholar
  11. Kowall, N.W., Pendleury, W.W., Kessler, J.B., Perl, D.P., Beal, M.F. 1989Aluminium-induced neurofibrillary degeneration affects a subset of neurons in rabbit cerebral cortex, basal forebrain and upper brain stemNeuroscience29329337Google Scholar
  12. Kumar, C.G., Anand, S.K. 1998Significance of microbial biofilms in food industry: A reviewInternational Journal of Food Microbiology42927Google Scholar
  13. Kurane, R., Takeda, K., Suzuki, T. 1986Screening and characteristics of microbial flocculantsAgricultural and Biological Chemistry5023012307Google Scholar
  14. Kurane, R., Hatamochi, K., Kakuno, T., Kiyohira, M., Kawaguchi, K., Mizuno, Y., Hirano, M., Taniguchi, Y. 1994Purification and characterization of liquid bioflocculant produced by Rhodococcus erythropolisBioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry5819771982Google Scholar
  15. Kwon, B.D., Foss, P.A., Rha, C. 1987

    Rheological characteristics of high viscosity polysaccharides

    Yalpani, M. eds. Industrial Polysaccharides - Proceedings of the Symposium on the Applications and Modifications of Industrial Polysaccharides: Genetic Engineering, Structure/Property Relations, and ApplicationsElsevier Science PublishersAmsterdamISBN 0-44442906-9
    Google Scholar
  16. Ma, L., Barbosa-Canovas, G.V. 1997Viscoelastic properties of xanthan gum interacting with cationsJournal of Food Science6211241128Google Scholar
  17. Mao, R., Tang, J., Swanson, B.G. 2001Water holding capacity and microstructure of gellan gumsCarbohydrate Polymers46365371Google Scholar
  18. Master, C.L., Multhaup, G., Simms, G., Pottgiesser, J., Martins, R.N., Beyreuther, K. 1985Neuronal origin of a cerebral amyloid: neurofibrallary tangles of Alzheimer’s disease contain the same protein as the amyloid of plaque cores and blood vesselsEMBO Journal427572763Google Scholar
  19. Ren, Y., Ellis, P.R., Sutherland, I.W., Ross-Murphy, S.B. 2003Dilute and semi-dilute solution properties of an exopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli strain S61Carbohydrate Polymers52189195Google Scholar
  20. Salehizadeh, H., Shojaosadati, S.A. 2001Extracellular biopolymeric flocculants. Recent trends and biotechnological importanceBiotechnology Advances19371385Google Scholar
  21. Scott, J.E. 1965

    Fractionation by precipitation with quaternary ammonium salts

    Whistler, R.L. eds. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry Academic Press New York3844ISBN 0-12746205-8 , vol. 5
    Google Scholar
  22. Seo, W.T., Kahng, G.G., Nam, S.H., Choi, S.D., Suh, H.H., Kim, S.W., Park, Y.H. 1999Isolation and characterization of a novel exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus sp. WN9 KCTC 8951PJournal of Microbiology and Biotechnology9820825Google Scholar
  23. Sneath, P.H.A. 1986

    Endospore-forming Gram-positive rods and cocci

    Sneath, S.N.S.Mair, N.S.Sharpe, M.E. Holt, J.G. eds. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2 Willliams and WilkinsBaltimore11041139ISBN 0-6683-07893-3
    Google Scholar
  24. Sutherland, T.F., Grant, J., Amos, C.L. 1998The effect of carbohydrate production by the diatom Nitzschia curvilineata on the erodibility of sedimentLimnology and Oceanography436572Google Scholar
  25. Vanhorick, M., Moens, W. 1983Carcinogen of acrylamideCarcinogenesis414521463Google Scholar
  26. Yalpani, M., Sandford, P.A. 1987

    Commercial polysaccharides: recent trends and developments

    Yalpani, M. eds. In Industrial Polysaccharides - Proceedings of the Symposium on the Applications and Modifications of Industrial Polysaccharides: Genetic Engineering, Structure/Property Relations, and ApplicationsElsevier Science PublishersAmsterdam
    Google Scholar
  27. Zajic, J.E., Knetting, E. 1970Flocculant from paraffinic hydrocarbonsDevelopments in Industrial Microbiology118798Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Ganesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Han-seung Joo
    • 1
  • Rajesh Kavali
    • 2
  • Jang-won Choi
    • 3
  • Chung-soon Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of MedicineInha UniversityJung-Ku, InchonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryInha UniversityInchon South Korea
  3. 3.Division of Life Resources, College of Natural ResourcesTaegu UniversityKyungsan,KyungbukSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations