World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 719–725

Characterization of extremely halophilic Archaea isolated from the Ayvalik Saltern, Turkey

  • Rahel Elevi
  • Parvaneh Assa
  • Meral Birbir
  • Ayse Ogan
  • Aharon Oren


Seven extremely halophilic strains were isolated from the Ayvalik Saltern in the north-eastern part of Turkey. Chemical analyses of the brine and salt samples were performed to measure their salt content, hardness and pH. Isolated strains were tested for their antibiotic sensitivities; cell and colony morphologies; hydrolysis of casein, starch, gelatin, Tween 20 and Tween 80; and oxidase and catalase activity. All strains were found to belong to the domain Archaea. Characterization of polar lipids by thin layer chromatography indicated that all isolates contained phytanyl diether derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the methyl ester of phosphatidyl glycerophosphate (PGP-Me), and phosphatidylglycerosulphate (PGS). Four isolates had triglycosyl diether (TGD-2) as glycolipid, and the other three contained a sulphated diglycosyl diether instead. All isolates were examined for the presence of plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis. Four strains were found to harbour plasmids ranging in size from 13.8 to 15.3 kbp. Correlation between the protein profiles in SDS–PAGE and the phenotypic properties of the strains was poor. The data presented here provide the first published account of the microbiota of the Ayvalik saltern, which provides a large part of the salt produced in Turkey.

Archaea exoenzymes extremely halophilic Archaea salterns Turkey 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Antón, J., Llobet-Brossa, E., Rodríguez-Valera, F. & Amann, R. 1999 Fluoresence in situ hybridization analysis of the procaryotic community inhabiting crystallizer ponds. Environmental Microbiology 1, 517–523.Google Scholar
  2. Birbir, M. & Ilgaz, A. 1996 Isolation and identification of bacteria adversely affecting hide and leather quality. Journal of the Society of Leather Technology Chemists 80, 147–153.Google Scholar
  3. Birbir, M. & Sesal, C. 2003 Extremely halophilic bacterial communities in Sereflikochisar salt lake in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Biology 27, 7–22.Google Scholar
  4. Bonelo, G., Ventosa, A., Megias, M. & Ruiz-Berraquero, F. 1984 The sensitivity of halobacteria to antibiotics. FEMS Microbiology Letters 21, 341–345.Google Scholar
  5. DasSarma, S. 1995 In Archaea. A Laboratory Manual. Halophiles, eds. DasSarma, S. & Fleischmann E.M. pp. 241–250. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, ISBN 0–8-69436-6.Google Scholar
  6. Dussault, H.P. 1955 An improved technique for staining red halophilic bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 70, 484–485.Google Scholar
  7. Galinski, E.A. 1995 Osmoadaptation in bacteria. Advances in Microbial Physiology 37, 273–328.Google Scholar
  8. Grant, W.D., Kamekura, M., McGenity, T.J. & Ventosa, A. 2001 In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn. ed. Garrity, G.M. pp. 294–334. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co., ISBN 0–38798771-1.Google Scholar
  9. Gutiérrez, C. & González, C. 1972 Method for simultaneous detection of proteinase and esterase in extremely halophilic bacteria. Applied Microbiology 24, 516–517.Google Scholar
  10. Gutiérrez, M.C., García, M.T., Ventosa, A., Nieto, J.J. & Ruiz-Berraquero, F. 1986 Occurrence of megaplasmids in halobacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 61, 67–71.Google Scholar
  11. Harley, J.P. & Prescott, L.M. 1993 Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology, 2nd edn. Dubuque, IA: C. Brown Communications Inc., ISBN 0–69709931-8.Google Scholar
  12. Hartmann, R., Sickinger, H.D. & Oesterhelt, D. 1980 Anaerobic growth of halobacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 77, 3821–3825.Google Scholar
  13. Hesselberg, M. & Vreeland, R.H. 1995 Utilization of protein profiles for the characterization of halophilic bacteria. Current Microbiology 31, 158–162.Google Scholar
  14. Holding, A.J. & Collee, J. 1971 Routine biochemical tests. In Methods in Microbiology, vol. 6A, eds. Norris J.R. & Ribbons D.W. pp. 1–32. Academic Press, London: ISBN 0–12-521506-1.Google Scholar
  15. Kamekura, M. 1986 Production of enzymes of eubacterial halophiles. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 39, 145–150.Google Scholar
  16. Kamekura, M. & Dyall-Smith, M.L. 1995 Taxonomy of the family Halobacteriaceae and description of two new genera Halorubrobacterium and Natrialba. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 41, 333–350.Google Scholar
  17. Kushner, D.J. 1985 In The Bacteria, vol. VIII, eds. Woese, C.R. & Wolfe R.S. pp. 171–213. London: Academic Press, ISBN 0–12-307208-5.Google Scholar
  18. Kushner, D.J. & Kamekura, M. 1988 In Halophilic Bacteria, vol. 1, Rodriguez-Valera F. pp. 109–140. Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 0–84934367-4.Google Scholar
  19. Laemmli, U.K. 1970 Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.Google Scholar
  20. Litchfield, C.D., Irby, A., Kis-Papo, T. & Oren, A. 2000 Comparisons of the polar lipid profiles of two solar salterns located in Newark, California, U.S.A., and Eilat, Israel. Extremophiles 4, 259–265.Google Scholar
  21. Montalvo-Rodriguez, R., Vreeland, R.H., Oren, A., Kessel, M., Betancourt, C. & Lopez-Garriga, J. 1998 Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 48, 1305–1312.Google Scholar
  22. Montalvo-Rodriguez, R., Lopez-Garriga, J., Vreeland, R.H., Oren, A., Ventosa, A. & Kamekura. M. 2000 Haloterrigena thermotolerans sp.nov., a halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50, 1065–1071.Google Scholar
  23. Morth, S. & Tindall, B.J. 1985 Variation of polar lipid composition within haloalkaliphilic archaebacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 6, 247–250.Google Scholar
  24. Norton, C. 1992 Rediscovering the ecology of halobacteria. ASM News 58, 363–367.Google Scholar
  25. Oren, A. 1988 The microbial ecology of the Dead Sea Advances in Microbial Ecology 10, 193–229.Google Scholar
  26. Oren, A. 1994 aThe ecology of extremely halophilic archaea. FEMS Microbiology Review 13, 415–440.Google Scholar
  27. Oren, A. 1994b Characterization of the halophilic archaeal community in saltern crystallizer ponds by means of polar lipid analysis. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 3, 15–29.Google Scholar
  28. Oren, A. 2001 In The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications, eds. Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H. & Stackebrandt, E., New York: Springer-Verlag, (electronic publication).Google Scholar
  29. Oren, A. 2002 Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Scientific Publishers, ISBN 1–40200829-5.Google Scholar
  30. Oren, A. & Gurevich, P. 1993 Characterization of the dominant halophilic archaea in a bacterial bloom in the Dead Sea. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 12, 249–256.Google Scholar
  31. Oren, A., Gurevich, P., Gemmell, R.T. & Teske, A. 1995 Halobaculum gomorrense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel extremely halophilic archaea from the Dead Sea. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 45, 747–754.Google Scholar
  32. Oren, A., Duker, S. & Ritter, S. 1996 The polar lipid composition of Walsby's square bacterium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 138, 135–140.Google Scholar
  33. Oren, A., Ventosa, A. & Grant, W.D. 1997 Proposed minimal standards for description of new taxa in the order Halobacteriales, International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology. 47, 233–238.Google Scholar
  34. Oren, A., Ventosa, A., Gutierrez, C. & Kamekura, M. 1999 Haloarcula quadrata sp. nov., a square, motile archaeon isolated from a brine pool in Sinai (Egypt). International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology 49, 1149–1155.Google Scholar
  35. Rodriguez-Valera, F. 1988 In Halophilic Bacteria, vol. I, ed. Rodriguez-Valera F. pp. 3–30. Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 0–84934367-4.Google Scholar
  36. Rodriguez-Valera, F. 1992 The archaebacteria: biochemistry and biotechnology. In Biochemical Society Symposium no. 58, eds. Danson, M.J., Hough, D.W. & Lund G.G. Biochemical Society, pp. 135–147, London. ISBN 1–85578010-0.Google Scholar
  37. Ross, H.N.M., Collins, M.D., Tindall, B.J. & Grant, W.D. 1981 A rapid procedure for the detection of archaebacterial lipids in halophilic bacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 123, 75–80.Google Scholar
  38. Stan-Lotter, H., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Legat, A., Busse, H.-J., Radax, C. & Gruber, C. 2002 Halococcus dombrowskii sp. nov, an archaeal isolate from a Permian alpine salt deposit. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52, 1807–1814.Google Scholar
  39. Torreblanca, M., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A., Kamekura, M. & Kates, M., 1986 Classification of nonalkaliphilic halobacteria on numerical taxonomy and polar lipid composition and description of Haloarcula gen. nov and Haloferax gen. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 8, 89–99.Google Scholar
  40. Trussell, R., Lenore, S., Clesceri, A. & Greenberg, E. 1989 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th edn. APHA-AWWA-WPCF. Baltimore, Maryland: American Public Health Association, Port City Press, ISBN 0–87553161-X.Google Scholar
  41. Vreeland, R.H. 1993 In The Biology of Halophilic Bacteria. eds. Vreeland, R.H. & Hochstein L.I. pp. 105–134. Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 0–84938841-4.Google Scholar
  42. Wainø, M., Tindall, B.J. & Ingvorsen, K. 2000 Halorhabdus utahensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, extremely halophilic member of the Archaea from Great Salt Lake, Utah. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50, 183–190.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahel Elevi
    • 1
  • Parvaneh Assa
    • 1
  • Meral Birbir
    • 2
  • Ayse Ogan
    • 2
  • Aharon Oren
    • 3
  1. 1.Science and Art Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Division of BiochemistryMarmara UniversityGoztepeTurkey
  2. 2.Science and Art Faculty, Department of Biology, Division of Plant Diseases and MicrobiologyMarmara UniversityGoztepeTurkey
  3. 3.The Institute of Life Sciences, and the Moshe Shilo Minerva Center for Marine BiogeochemistryThe Hebrew University of JerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations