Advertisement

Influence of glucose and oxygen on the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during alcoholic fermentation

  • C. PlataEmail author
  • J. C. Mauricio
  • C. Millán
  • J. M. Ortega
Article

Abstract

The effect of glucose and dissolved oxygen in a synthetic medium simulating the standard composition of grape juice on the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during alcoholic fermentation was studied. The specific in vitro activity of alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase, EC 2.3.1.84) and esterases (ESase, EC 3.1.1.1; hydrolysis and synthesis of esters) in cell-free extracts was also examined. The specific activity of AATase for ethyl acetate was found to peak at the beginning of the exponential growth phase and that for isoamyl acetate at its end. While the glucose concentration only affected the maximum specific activity of AATase, and only slightly, oxygen inhibited such activity, to a greater extent for isoamyl acetate than for ethyl acetate. On the other hand, esterases were found to catalyse the synthesis of ethyl acetate only at a low or medium glucose concentration (50 or 100 g l-1, respectively), and to reach their maximum hydrolytic activity on isoamyl acetate during the stationary growth phase. The highest ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations in the medium were obtained with a glucose concentration of 250 g l-1 and semianaerobic conditions.

Keywords

Alcohol acetyltransferase esterases ethyl acetate isoamyl acetate Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Calderbank, J., Hammond, J.R.M. 1994Influence of higher alcohol availability on ester formation by yeastJournal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists528490Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, Y., Gilmour, R.H., Rous, P.R. 1972Differentiation of yeasts by electrophoretic methodsJournal of the Institute of Brewing78491496Google Scholar
  3. Crowell, E.A., Ough, C.S. 1979A modified procedure for alcohol determination by dichromate oxidationAmerican Journal of Enology and Viticulture306163Google Scholar
  4. Fujii, T., Yoshimoto, H., Tamai, Y. 1996Acetate ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the ATF1 gene encoding the alcohol acetyltransferaseJournal of Fermentation and Bioengineering81538542Google Scholar
  5. Fujii, T., Kobayashi, O., Yoshimoto, H., Furukawa, S., Tamai, Y. 1997Effect of aeration and unsaturated fatty acids on expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase geneApplied and Environmental Microbiology63910915Google Scholar
  6. Fujiwara, D., Yoshimoto, H., Sone, H., Harashima, S., Tamai, Y. 1998Transcriptional coregulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase gene, ATF1 and ▵-9 fatty acid desaturase gene, OLE1 by unsaturated fatty acidsYeast14711721Google Scholar
  7. Fukuda, K., Kuwahata, O., Kiyokawa, Y., Yanagiuchi, T., Wakai, Y., Kitamoto, K., Inoue, Y., Kimura, A. 1996Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the isoamyl acetate hidrolyzing esterase gene (EST2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiaeJournal of Fermentation and Bioengineering81815Google Scholar
  8. Fukuda, K., Yamamoto, N., Kiyokawa, Y., Yanagiuchi, T., Wakai, Y., Kitamoto, K., Inoue, Y., Kimura, A. 1998Balance of activities of alcohol acetyltransferase and esterase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for production of isoamyl acetateApplied and Environmental Microbiology6440764078Google Scholar
  9. Inoue, Y., Trevanichi, S., Fukuda, K., Izawa, S., Wakai, Y., Kimura, A. 1997Roles of esterase and alcohol acetyltransferase on production of isoamyl acetate in Hansenula mrakiiJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry45644649Google Scholar
  10. Leao, C., Van Uden, N. 1985Effects of ethanol and other alkanols on the relations of glucose transport and fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology22359363Google Scholar
  11. Lilly, M., Lambrechts, M.G., Pretorius, I.S. 2000Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillatesApplied and Environmental Microbiology66744753Google Scholar
  12. Malcorps, P., Cheval, J.M., Jamil, S., Dufour, J.P. 1991A new model for the regulation of ester synthesis by alcohol acetyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentationJournal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists494753Google Scholar
  13. Mallouchos, A., Komaitis, M., Koutinas, A., Kanellaki, M. 2003Wine fermentations by immobilized and free cells at different temperatures. Effect of immobilization and temperature on volatile by-productsFood Chemistry80109113Google Scholar
  14. Mason, A.B., Dufour, J.P. 2000Alcohol acetyltransferase and the significance of ester synthesis in yeastYeast1612871298Google Scholar
  15. Mauricio, J.C., Moreno, J., Valero, E., Zea, L., Medina, M., Ortega, J.M. 1993Ester formation and specific activities of in vitro alcohol acetyltransferase and esterase by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during grape must fermentationJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry4120862091Google Scholar
  16. Mauricio, J.C., Moreno, J., Zea, L., Ortega, J.M., Medina, M. 1997The effects of grape must fermentation conditions on volatile alcohols and esters formed by Saccharomyces cerevisiaeJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture75155160Google Scholar
  17. Mauricio, J.C., Millán, C., Ortega, J.M. 1998Influence of oxygen on the biosynthesis of cellular fatty acids, sterols and phospholipids during alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckiiWorld Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology14405410Google Scholar
  18. Minetoki, T. 1992Alcohol acetyltransferase of sake yeastJournal of Brewing Society of Japan87334340Google Scholar
  19. Nykänen, L. 1986Formation and occurrence of flavour compounds in wine and distilled alcoholic beveragesAmerican Journal of Enology and Viticulture378496Google Scholar
  20. Pampulha, M.E., Loureiro-Diaz, M.C. 1990Activity of glycolitic enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic acidApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology34375380Google Scholar
  21. Plata, M.C., Mauricio, J.C., Millán, C., Ortega, J.M. 1998In vitro specific activity of alcohol acetyltransferase and esterase in two flor yeast strains during biological aging of Sherry winesJournal of Fermentation and Bioengineering85369374Google Scholar
  22. Plata, M.C., Mauricio, J.C., Millán, C., Ortega, J.M. 2003Formation of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by various species of wine yeastsFood Microbiology20217224Google Scholar
  23. Rojas, V., Gil, J.V., Piñaga, F., Manzanares, P. 2001Studies on acetate ester production by non-Saccharomyces wine yeastInternational Journal of Food Microbiology70283289Google Scholar
  24. Rojas, V., Gil, J.V., Manzanares, P., Gavara, R., Piñaga, F., Flors, A. 2002Measurement of alcohol acetyltransferase and ester hydrolase activities in yeast extractsEnzyme and Microbial Technology30224230Google Scholar
  25. Schermers, F.H., Duffus, J.H., McLeod, A.M. 1976Studies on yeast esteraseJournal of the Institute of Brewing82170184Google Scholar
  26. Schreier, P. 1979Flavor composition of wines: a reviewCRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition1259111Google Scholar
  27. Schreier, P. 1984 Formation of wine aroma. In Proceding of Alko Symposium of Flavour Research of Alcoholic Beverages–Instrumental and sensory Analysis, eds. Nykänen, L. & Lehtonen, P. pp. 9–37. Helsinki: Foundation for Biotechnical and Industrial Fermentation Research.Google Scholar
  28. Singh, R., Kunkee, R. 1976Alcohol dehydrogenase activities of wine yeasts in relation to higher alcohol formationApplied and Environmental Microbiology32666670Google Scholar
  29. Soles, R.M., Ough, C.S., Kunkee, R.E. 1982Ester concentration differences in wines fermented by various species and strains of yeastsAmerican Journal of Enology and Viticulture339498Google Scholar
  30. Thurston, P.A., Quain, D.E., Tubb, R.S. 1982Lipid metabolism and the regulation of volatile synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeJournal of the Institute of Brewing889094Google Scholar
  31. Van Der Merwe, C.A., Van Wyk, C.J. 1981The contribution of some fermentation products to the odour of dry white winesAmerican Journal of Enology and Viticulture324146Google Scholar
  32. Verstrepen, K.J., Van Laere, S.D.M., Vanderhaegen, B.M.P., Derdelinckx, G., Dufour, J.P., Pretorius, I.S., Winderickx, J., Thevelein, J.M., Delvaux, F.R. 2003Expression levels of the yeast alcohol acetyltransferase genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 control the formation of a broad range of volatile estersApplied and Environmental Microbiology6952285237Google Scholar
  33. Wakai, Y., Yanagiuchi, T., Kiyokawa, Y. 1990Properties of an isoamyl acetate hydrolytic enzyme from sake yeast strainHakkokogaku68101105Google Scholar
  34. Yoshimoto, H., Fujiwara, D., Momma, T., Ito, C., Sone, H., Kaneko, Y., Tamai, Y. 1998Characterization of the ATF1 and Lg-ATF1 genes encoding alcohol acetyltransferases in the bottom fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pasteurianusJournal of Fermentation and Bioengineering861520Google Scholar
  35. Yoshioka, K., Hashimoto, H. 1981Ester formation by alcohol acetyltransferase from brewer’s yeastAgricultural and Biological Chemistry4521832190Google Scholar
  36. Younis, O.S., Stewart, G.G. 2003The effect of worth maltose content on volatile production and fermentation performance in brewing yeastSmart, K. eds. Brewing Yeast Fermentation PerformanceBlackwell ScienceOxford, United Kingdom170176vol. 1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Plata
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. C. Mauricio
    • 1
  • C. Millán
    • 1
  • J. M. Ortega
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of CordobaCórdobaSpain

Personalised recommendations