Advertisement

Temperature responses of carbon dioxide fluxes from coarse dead wood in a black ash wetland

  • Nam Jin NohEmail author
  • Joseph P. Shannon
  • Nicholas W. Bolton
  • Joshua C. Davis
  • Matthew J. Van Grinsven
  • Thomas G. Pypker
  • Randall K. Kolka
  • Joseph W. Wagenbrenner
Original Paper

Abstract

The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) causes widespread ash tree mortality in North America, and the CO2 efflux (respiration, F) from coarse dead wood (CDW) following the EAB infestation is unknown. We examined seasonal variations in CO2 fluxes from various types of CDW (cut ash stumps, downed logs, and standing girdled dead stems) and the surfaces of soil and live stem in a black ash wetland in which EAB infestation was simulated. Responses of FCDW to seasonal changes in temperature were less sensitive than that of live stems. However, FCDW from the stump and log cross-section were significantly greater than the other component fluxes. The mean CO2 flux from girdled stems was similar to those from soil and live stems. The log and stump cross-sections may function as an unaccounted pathway of CO2 flux following pre-emptive or salvage harvests associated with EAB mitigation. The increases in the amount of CDW and temperature caused by canopy openness and subsequent increased insolation, and potential long-term increase in water level and CDW moisture might accelerate the respirational carbon loss from soil and CDW after black ash wetlands are infested by EAB. These results identify and quantify CO2 pathways in EAB affected wetlands, which can be used to improve respiration modeling and carbon accounting in black ash wetlands.

Keywords

Emerald ash borer Fraxinus nigra Heterotrophic respiration Wood moisture content Soil respiration Stem respiration Temperature sensitivity Tree mortality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the journal’s subject-matter editor and the two anonymous reviewers for their comments. This study was funded by USDA Forest Service, US-EPA Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (Grant/Award No. DW-12-92429101-0). We appreciate the experimental support of Michigan Tech’s Ecosystem Science Center.

Supplementary material

11273_2018_9649_MOESM1_ESM.tif (44.2 mb)
Fig. S1 Map of the study sites located in the Ottawa National Forest in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Green lined areas indicate the black ash dominated wetland study sites. (TIFF 45285 kb)
11273_2018_9649_MOESM2_ESM.tif (4.6 mb)
Fig. S2 a Temporal variations in daily mean temperature of air, live stem, soil and CDW at Control site from 20 May through 25 October 2017 and b the range of temperatures for the study period. Box plot lines in (b) present the median, 25th and 75th percentiles, with whiskers at the 5th and 95th percentiles, and outliers shown as points. Significant differences in (b) are represented by different letters (p < 0.05). (TIFF 4683 kb)

References

  1. Anderegg WRL, Martinez-Vilalta J, Cailleret M, Camarero JJ, Ewers BE, Galbraith D, Gessler A, Grote R, Huang C, Levick SR, Powell TL, Rowland L, Sánchez-Salguero R, Trotsiuk V (2016) When a tree dies in the forests: scaling climate-driven tree mortality to ecosystem water and carbon fluxes. Ecosystems 19:1133–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arguez A, Durre I, Applequist S, Vose RS, Squires MF, Yin X, Heim RR, Owen TW (2012) NOAA’s 1981–010 U.S. climate normals: an overview. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 93:1687–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bantle A, Borken W, Matzner E (2014) Dissolved nitrogen release from coarse woody debris of different tree species in the early phase of decomposition. For Ecol Manag 334:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boddy L, Watkinson SC (1995) Wood decomposition, higher fungi, and their role in nutrient redistribution. Can J Bot 73:1377–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolstad PV, Davis KJ, Martin J, Cook BD, Wang W (2004) Component and whole-system respiration fluxes in northern deciduous forests. Tree Physiol 24:493–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolton NW (2017) Methane flux of tree stems and mitigating the impacts of insect outbreak through planting alternative tree species within the Upper Great Lakes Region, USA. Dissertation, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological UniversityGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolton N, Shannon J, Davis J, Van Grinsven M, Noh NJ, Schooler S, Kolka R, Pypker T, Wagenbrenner J (2018) Methods to improve alternative species seedlings survival and growth in black ash ecosystems threatened by emerald ash borer. Forests 9:146.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9030146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bond-Lamberty B, Wang C, Gower ST (2003) Annual carbon flux from woody debris for a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence. J Geophys Res 108(D3):8220.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000839 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davidson EA, Janssens IA, Luo Y (2006) On the variability of respiration in terrestrial ecosystems: moving beyond Q10. Glob Change Biol 12:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis JC, Shannon JP, Bolton NW, Kolka RK, Pypker TG (2017) Vegetation responses to simulated emerald ash borer infestation in Fraxinus nigra dominated wetlands of Upper Michigan, USA. Can J For Res 47:319–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edburg SL, Hicke JA, Brooks PD, Pendall EG, Ewers BE, Norton U, Gochis D, Gutmann ED, Meddens AJH (2012) Cascading impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on coupled biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. Front Ecol Environ 10:416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Emerald Ash Borer Information Network. http://www.emeraldshborer.info. Accessed 7 Dec 2018
  13. Fissore C, Giardina CP, Kolka RK, Trettin CC (2009) Soil organic carbon quality in forested mineral wetlands at different mean annual temperature. Soil Biol Biochem 41:458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flower CE, Conzalez-Meler MA (2015) Responses of temperate forest productivity to insect and pathogen disturbances. Annu Plant Biol 66:547–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flower CE, Knight KS, Conzalez-Meler MA (2013) Impacts of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) induced ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality on forest carbon cycling and successional dynamics in the eastern United States. Biol Invasion 15:931–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Forrester JA, Mladenoff DJ, Gower ST, Stoffel JL (2012) Interactions of temperature and moisture with respiration from coarse woody debris in experimental forest canopy gaps. For Ecol Manag 265:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forrester JA, Mladenoff DJ, D’Amato AW, Fraver S, Linder DL, Brazee NJ, Clayton MK, Gower ST (2015) Temporal trends and sources of variation in carbon flux from coarse woody debris in experimental forest canopy openings. Oecologica 170:889–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gough CM, Vogel CS, Kazanski C, Nagel L, Flower CE, Curtis PS (2007) Coarse woody debris and the carbon balance of a north temperate forest. For Ecol Manag 244:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herms D, McCullough D (2014) Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts and management. Annu Rev Entomol 59:13–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Herrmann S, Bauhus J (2013) Effects of moisture, temperature and decomposition stage on respirational carbon loss from coarse woody debris (CWD) of important European tree species. Scand J Forest Res 28:346–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hinrichs C, Boiler C (2014) JMP essentials: an illustrated step-by-step guide for new users, 2nd edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar
  22. Iverson L, Knight KS, Prasad A, Herms DA, Mattews S, Peters M, Smith A, Hartzler DM, Long R, Almendinger J (2016) Potential species replacements for black ash (Fraxinus nigra) at the confluence of two threats: emerald ash borer and a changing climate. Ecosystems 19:248–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jomura M, Akashi Y, Itoh H, Yuki R, Sakai Y, Maruyama Y (2015) Biotic and abiotic factors controlling respiration rates of above- and belowground woody debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan. PLoS ONE 10:e0145113.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.014113 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Kahl T, Arnstadt T, Baber K, Bässler C, Bauhus J, Borken W, Buscot F, Floren A, Heibl C, Hessenmöller D, Hofrichter M, Hoppe B, Kellner H, Krüger D, Linsenmair KE, Matzner E, Otto P, Purahong W, Seilwinder C, Schulze ED, Wende B, Weisser WW, Gossner MM (2017) Wood decay rates of 13 temperate tree species in relation to wood properties, enzyme activities and organismic diversities. For Ecol Manag 391:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kashian DM, Witter JA (2011) Assessing the potential for ash canopy tree replacement via current regeneration following emerald ash borer-caused mortality on southeastern Michigan landscapes. For Ecol Manag 261:480–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klooster WS, Gandhi KJK, Long LC, Perry KI, Rice KB, Herms DA (2018) Ecological impacts of emerald ash borer in forests at the epicenter of the invasion in North America. Forests 9:250.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kolka RK, D’Amato AW, Wagenbrenner JW, Slesak RA, Pypker TG, Youngquist MB, Grinde AR, Palik BJ (2018) Review of ecosystem level impacts of emerald ash borer on black ash wetlands: what does the future hold? Forests 9:179.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Laiho R, Prescott CE (2004) Decay and nutrient dynamics of coarse woody debris in northern coniferous forest: a synthesis. Can J For Res 34:763–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Littell RC, Milliken G, Stroup W, Wolfinger R, Schabenberger O (2006) SAS for mixed models, 2nd edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  30. Looney CE, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ, Slesak RA (2015) Overstory treatment and planting season affect survival of replacement tree species in emerald ash borer threatened Fraxinus nigra forests in Minnesota, USA. Can J For Res 45:1728–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Looney CE, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ, Slesak RA (2017a) Canopy treatment influences growth of replacement tree species in Fraxinus nigra forests threatened by the emerald ash borer in Minnesota, USA. Can J For Res 47:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Looney CE, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ, Slesak RA, Slater MA (2017b) The response of Fraxinus nigra forest ground-layer vegetation to emulated emerald ash borer mortality and management strategies in northern Minnesota, USA. For Ecol Manag 389:352–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MacFarlane D, Meyer S (2005) Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer. For Ecol Manag 213:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Magnússon RÍ, Tietema A, Cornelissen JHC, Hefting MM, Lalbitz K (2016) Tamm review: sequestration of carbon from coarse woody debris in forest soils. For Ecol Manag 377:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matthes JH, Lang AK, Jevon FV, Russell SJ (2018) Tree stress and mortality from emerald ash borer does not systematically alter short-term soil carbon flux in a mixed Northeastern U.S. forest. Forests 9:37.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9010037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyer L, Brischke C (2015) Fungal decay at different moisture levels of selected European-grown wood species. Int Biodeter Biodeg 103:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miao G, Noormets A, Domec JC, Fuentes M, Trettin CC, Sun G, McNulty SG, King JS (2017) Hydrology and microtopography control carbon dynamics in wetlands: implications in partitioning ecosystem respiration in a coastal plain forested wetland. Agric Forest Meteorol 247:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mosier SL, Kane ES, Richter DL, Lilleskov EA, Jurgensen MF, Burton AJ, Resh SC (2017) Interactive effects of climate change and fungal communities on wood-derived carbon in forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 115:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nisbet D, Kreutzweiser D, Sibley P, Scarr T (2015) Ecological risks posed by emerald ash borer to riparian forest habitats: a review and problem formulation with management implications. For Ecol Manag 358:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Noh NJ, Yoon TK, Kim RH, Bolton NW, Kim C, Son Y (2017) Carbon and nitrogen accumulation and decomposition from coarse woody debris in a natural regenerated Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) forest. Forests 8:214.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f8060214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ohtsuka T, Shizu Y, Hirota M, Yashiro Y, Shugang J, Iimura Y, Koizumi H (2014) Role of coarse woody debris in the carbon cycle of Takayama forest, central Japan. Ecol Res 29:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Perry KI, Herms DA, Klooster WS, Smith A, Hartzler DM, Coyle DR, Gandhi KJK (2018) Downed coarse woody debris dynamics in ash (Fraxinus spp.) stands invaded by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Forests 9:191.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pugh SA, Liebhold AM, Morin RS (2011) Changes in ash tree demography associated with emerald ash borer infestation, indicated by regional forest inventory data from the Great Lakes States. Can J For Res 41:2165–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Russell MB, Fraver S, Aakala T, Gove JH, Woodall CW, D’Amato AW, Ducey MJ (2015) Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: a review. For Ecol Manag 350:107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ryan MG, Cavaleri MA, Almeida AC, Penchel R (2009) Wood CO2 efflux and foliar respiration for Eucalyptus in Hawaii and Brazil. Tree Pysiol 29:1213–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salomón RL, Valbuena-Carabaña M, Gil L, McGuire MA, Teskey RO, Aubrey DP, González-Doncel I, Rodríguez-Calcerrada J (2016) Temporal and spatial patterns of internal and external stem CO2 fluxes in a sub-Mediterranean oak. Tree Physiol 36:1409–1421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. SAS Institute (2012) SAS 9.4 for Windows, Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmid AV, Vogel CS, Liebman E, Curtis PS, Gough CM (2016) Coarse woody debris and the carbon balance of a moderately disturbed forest. For Ecol Manag 361:38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shannon J, Van Grinsven M, Davis J, Bolton N, Noh NJ, Pypker T, Kolka R (2018) Water level controls on sap flux of canopy species in black ash wetlands. Forests 9:147.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9030147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Slesak RA, Lenhart CF, Brooks KN, D’Amato AW, Palik BJ (2014) Water table response to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands in Minnesota, USA. Can J For Res 44:961–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sorz J, Hietz P (2006) Gas diffusion through wood: implications for oxygen supply. Tree 20:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Teskey RO, Saveyn A, Steppe K, McGuire MA (2007) Origin, fate and significant of CO2 in tree stems. New Phytol 177:17–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Trumbore SE, Angert A, Kunert N, Muhr J, Chambers JQ (2013) What’s the flux? Unraveling how CO2 fluxes from tree reflect underlying physiological processes. Tree Physiol 197:353–355Google Scholar
  54. Ulyshen MD, Müller J, Seibold S (2016) Bark coverage and insects influence wood decomposition: direct and indirect effects. Appl Soil Ecol 105:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Van der Wal A, Ottosson E, de Boer W (2015) Neglected role of fungal community composition in explaining variation in wood decay rates. Ecology 96:124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Grinsven MJ, Shannon JP, Davis JC, Bolton NW, Wagenbrenner JW, Kolka RK, Pypker TG (2017) Source water contributions and hydrologic responses to simulated emerald ash borer infestations in depressional black ash wetlands. Ecohydrology 1862:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1862 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Van Grinsven MJ, Shannon JP, Bolton NW, Davis JC, Wagenbrenner JW, Kolka RK, Pypker TG (2018) Response of black ash wetland gaseous soil carbon fluxes to a simulated emerald ash borer infestation. Forests 9:324.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Warner DL, Villarreal S, McWilliams K, Inamdar S, Vargas R (2017) Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from tree stem, coarse woody debris, and soils in an upland temperate forest. Ecosystems 20:1205–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yoon TK, Han S, Lee DH, Han SH, Noh NJ, Son Y (2014a) Effects of sample size and temperature on coarse woody debris respiration from Quercus variabilis logs. J For Res 19:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yoon TK, Noh NJ, Han S, Lee J, Son Y (2014b) Soil moisture effects on leaf litter decomposition and soil carbon dioxide efflux in wetland and upland forests. Soil Sci Soc Am J 78:1804–1816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yoon TK, Noh NJ, Kim S, Han S, Son Y (2015) Coarse woody debris respiration of Japanese red pine forests in Korea: controlling factors and contribution to the ecosystem carbon cycle. Ecol Res 30:723–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Forest Resources and Environmental ScienceMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.Hawkesbury Institute for the EnvironmentWestern Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia
  3. 3.Daniel B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  4. 4.Smithsonian-Mason School of ConservationGeorge Mason UniversityFront RoyalUSA
  5. 5.Department of Earth, Environmental, and Geographical SciencesNorthern Michigan UniversityMarquetteUSA
  6. 6.Department of Natural Resource SciencesThompson Rivers UniversityKamloopsCanada
  7. 7.USDA Forest Service, Northern Research StationGrand RapidsUSA
  8. 8.USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research StationArcataUSA

Personalised recommendations